OWL for Observations

IRI:
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Previous version:
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation (visualise it with LODE)
Authors:
Simon Jonathan David COX CSIRO
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3884-3420
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

An OWL representation of the Observation Schema described in clauses 7-8 of ISO 19156:2011 Geographic Information - Observations and Measurements. In contrast to previous versions developed through SSN and in conjunction with ISO 19150-2, this ontology has minimal dependencies on existing ontologies, particularly those that trigger extended chains of imports. Stub classes are provided for time, geometry and measure (scaled number), which can be substituted at run-time by a suitable concrete representation of the concept. Observation Collection has been (re-)introduced, to support the common case where a collection is homogeneous in one or more properties (feature-of-interest, phenomenon-time, observed-property, units-of-measure, procedure). The value of the common property may be recorded against the collection instead of repetitively against every member. In this revision, the observation result is an Object Property, in order to conform to strict OWL2 semantics. The type constraints on Observation specializations TruthObservation and CountObservation have been changed, so that the range of oml:result is an Object containing the xsd type, rather than the data-type itself.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

An OWL representation of the Observation Schema described in clauses 7-8 of ISO 19156:2011 Geographic Information - Observations and Measurements / OGC Abstract Specification - Topic 20.

Classes

Collection of observationsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#ObservationCollection

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
A collection of observations or collections. The collection may be homogeneous in any of the feature-of-interest, observed-property, procedure, phenomenon-time or result-time. If only one value for any of these properties is provided on the collection, then it may be inferred to be a common (default) value for all the member observations or collections, unless locally overridden.
has super-classes
has memberop min 1
is in domain of
has memberop

Count objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#CountObject

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Object to wrap a count value
has super-classes
Count valuedp exactly 1

Count Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#CountObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Observation whose result is an integer
has super-classes
Observationc
observation resultop only Count objectc

Geometry objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#GeometryObject

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
This stub is included in the om: ontology to support references to geometry as the result of a GeometryObservation. An existing OWL class that represents the notion of a geometry may be asserted to be a sub-class of this stub, without requiring use of a specific representation of Geometry in the context of observations instance.
has super-classes
thingc

Geometry Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#GeometryObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Observation whose result is a geometry object, such as a point, curve, surface or solid
has super-classes
Observationc
observation resultop only Geometry objectc

Measurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#MeasureObject

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Scaled number This is an abstract class, which should be substituted by a suitable concrete representation of a measure or quantity at run-tme. oml:SimpleMeasure qudt:QuantityValue <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt#QuantityValue> DUL:Region <http://www.loa-cnr.it/ontologies/DUL.owl#Region> are candidates.
has sub-classes
Simple measure (quantity)c

Measurementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#Measurement

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Observation whose result is a scaled number
has super-classes
Observationc
observation resultop only Measurec

Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#Observation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
An observation is an act associated with a discrete time instant or period through which a number, term or other symbol is assigned to a phenomenon [2]. It involves application of a specified procedure, such as a sensor, instrument, algorithm or process chain. The procedure may be applied in-situ, remotely, or ex-situ with respect to the sampling location. The procedure may take inputs from the environment (as stimuli) or from the results of prior observations or processes. The result of an observation is an estimate of the value of a property of some feature. Use of a common model allows observation data using different procedures to be combined unambiguously. The observation itself is also a feature, since it has properties and identity. Observation details are important for data discovery and for data quality estimation. The observation could be considered to carry metadata about an instance of a property (of the feature of interest). This property-value metadata complements the dataset and feature metadata that have been conventionally considered (e.g. ISO 19115). The values for the properties 'procedure', 'featureOfInterest', 'observedProperty', 'phenomenonTime', 'resultTime' may be inherited from a container resource.
has super-classes
feature of interestop exactly 1
observed propertyop exactly 1
Stimulus timeop exactly 1
result timedp exactly 1
phenomenon timeop exactly 1
observation resultop exactly 1
observation procedureop exactly 1
has sub-classes
Count Observationc, Geometry Observationc, Measurementc, Temporal Observationc, Truth Observationc
is in domain of
observation resultop
is in range of
related observationop
is disjoint with
Observation processc

Observation contextc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#ObservationContext

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Some observations depend on other observations to provide context which is important, sometimes essential, in understanding the result. These dependencies are stronger than mere spatio-temporal coincidences, requiring explicit representation. If present, the association class class ObservationContext (Figure 2) shall link a OM_Observation to another OM_Observation, with the role name relatedObservation for the target. It shall support one attribute. EXAMPLES Some examples include the conditions associated with experimental replicates (e.g., experimental plots and treatments used), biotic factors (e.g., ecological community), interactions among features (e.g., predator-prey), or other temporary relationships occurring at the time of observation that are are not inherent to the observed features themselves (i.e., they change over time), or the related observation may provide input to a process that generates a new result. This association complements the Intention association which describes relationships between a sampling feature and domain features.
has super-classes
related observationop exactly 1
is in domain of
roleop
is in range of
observation contextop

Observation processc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#Process

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Agent, device, sensor, software, protocol, computational method, algorithm or plan responsible for generating an observation result. Input may be a sensor stimulus, or the output from a previous process. An oml:Process is re-usable, and might be involved in many observations. This terminology is consistent with SensorML, which defines Process as the super-class of all sensors and sensor systems. But this usage is different to the use of the term "Process" in BCO and OBOE, where it denotes an observation occurrence.
is in range of
observation procedureop
is disjoint with
Observationc

Simple measure (quantity)c back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#SimpleMeasure

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Simple implementation of a scaled number as an (amount, unit) pair
is equivalent to
numeric amount valuedp exactly 1
has super-classes
Measurec
uomop exactly 1
is in domain of
numeric amount valuedp

Temporal objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#TemporalObject

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Temporal geometry or topology, collection or complex. Temporal object has properties relating to time only.
is in range of
Stimulus timeop, phenomenon timeop

Temporal Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#TemporalObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Observation whose result is a temporal object, such as a time instant or period
has super-classes
Observationc
observation resultop only Temporal objectc

Truth objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#TruthObject

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Object to wrap a truth value
has super-classes
Truth valuedp exactly 1

Truth Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#TruthObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Observation whose result is either true or false
has super-classes
Observationc
observation resultop only Truth objectc

Object Properties

feature of interestop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#featureOfInterest

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
feature of interest of an observation Links the Observation to the Feature that is the ultimate subject of the observation and carries the observed property. This feature is the real-world object whose properties are under observation. An observation instance serves as a propertyValueProvider for its feature-of-interest.

has memberop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#member

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
links from a collection to a member collection or observation

is member ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#memberOf

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
is inverse of
has memberop

observation contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#context

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
link to related observation The first half of the property named 'relatedObservation' in the UML model. (The rule for implementing association classes needs clarification.)

observation procedureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#procedure

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
re-usable procedure used in making observation. Typically a sensor or sensor-system, algorithm, computational procedure.

observation resultop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#result

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
estimate of the value of the observed property

has characteristics: functional

has domain
Observationc

observed propertyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#observedProperty

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
property whose value is the result of the observation Link from the Observation to the PropertyType for which the Observation:result provides an estimate of its value. The observed property shall be a phenomenon associated with the feature-of-interest.

has characteristics: functional

has domain
Observationc or Collection of observationsc

phenomenon timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#phenomenonTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
time at which the estimate of the property that is the result of the observation is associated with the feature of interest

related observationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#relatedObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
related observation
has range
Observationc

roleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#role

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
role of related observation with respect to the observation of interest

sampling strategyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#samplingStrategy

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Links to a feature intended to sample the real-world object, as described in Clause 9 of ISO 19156:2011. N.B. this formulation varies from the UML model in ISO 19156, in which a sampling-feature is substitutable for the feature-of-interest. In this more explicit formulation, the (mandatory) feature-of-interest always refers to the ultimate feature of interest, whose type can carry the observed property, and the (optional) sampling strategy allows the sampling feature to be made explicit as an additional relationship. This overcomes some semantic sleight-of-hand in ISO 19156, in which the constraint the the observed property was commensurate with the feature-of-interest was allowed to be 'transitive' via the sampledFeature property.

Stimulus timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#stimulusTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
the time when the sensor stimulus occurred. Usually the beginning of the observation activity (the result time is the end).

uomop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#uom

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
Unit of measure or scale

Data Properties

Count valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#count

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
has range
integer

numeric amount valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#amount

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
has domain
Simple measure (quantity)c
has range
double

result timedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#resultTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
time at which the result became available, after all processing steps were completed

has characteristics: functional

has domain
Observationc or Collection of observationsc
has range
date time

Truth valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#truth

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite
has range
boolean

Annotation Properties

alt labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#altLabel

change noteap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#changeNote

definitionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#definition

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/description

has versionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/hasVersion

history noteap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#historyNote

issuedap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/issued

modifiedap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/modified

noteap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#note

pref labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#prefLabel

publisherap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/publisher

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/title

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/om-lite#
2011
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/
aboutdcmi
http://purl.org/dc/aboutdcmi#
content
http://www.semantic-web-journal.net/content/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
om
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/ontology/om/
orcid-org
http://orcid.org/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
rfc
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/
skos
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
terms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
vann
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.