Erlangen CRM / OWL

IRI:
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/
Current version:
ECRM 160714 / CIDOC-CRM 6.2.1
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

Changelog: https://github.com/erlangen-crm/ecrm/commits/master

Table of Content

  1. Classes
  2. Object Properties
  3. Data Properties
  4. Annotation Properties
  5. Namespace Declarations

Classes

E1 CRM Entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E1_CRM_Entity

Scope note: This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model. It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties: 1.Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier 2.Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to 3.Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity. Examples: the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) In First Order Logic: E1(x)
has super-classes
thingc
P48 has preferred identifierop max 1
has sub-classes
E2 Temporal Entityc, E52 Time-Spanc, E53 Placec, E54 Dimensionc, E77 Persistent Itemc, E92 Spacetime Volumec
is in domain of
P1 is identified byop, P129 is subject ofop, P136 supported type creationop, P137 exemplifiesop, P138 has representationop, P140 was attributed byop, P141 was assigned byop, P15 influencedop, P17 motivatedop, P2 has typeop, P3 has notedp, P39 was measured byop, P41 was classified byop, P62 is depicted byop, P67 is referred to byop, P70 is documented inop, P71 is listed inop
is in range of
P1 identifiesop, P129 is aboutop, P136 was based onop, P137 is exemplified byop, P138 representsop, P140 assigned attribute toop, P141 assignedop, P15 was influenced byop, P17 was motivated byop, P2 is type ofop, P39 measuredop, P41 classifiedop, P62 depictsop, P67 refers toop, P70 documentsop, P71 listsop

E10 Transfer of Custodyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E10_Transfer_of_Custody

Scope note: This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe: 1. the beginning of custody 2. the end of custody 3. the transfer of custody 4. the receipt of custody from an unknown source 5. the declared loss of an object The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft. The sense of physical possession requires that the object of custody is in the hands of the keeper at least with a part representative for the whole. The way, in which a representative part is defined, should ensure that it is unambiguous who keeps a part and who the whole and should be consistent with the identity criteria of the kept instance of E18 Physical Thing. For instance, in the case of a set of cutlery we may require the majority of pieces having been in the hands of the actor regardless which individual pieces are kept over time. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these. Examples: - the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery - the return of Picasso's "Guernica" to Madrid's Prado in 1981 In First Order Logic: E10(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P30 transferred custody ofop some E18 Physical Thingc
is in domain of
P28 custody surrendered byop, P29 custody received byop, P30 transferred custody ofop
is in range of
P28 surrendered custody throughop, P29 received custody throughop, P30 custody transferred throughop

E11 Modificationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E11_Modification

Scope note: This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation. Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities. If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilized for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using property P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material of E29 Design or Procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material. Examples: - the construction of the SS Great Britain (E12) - the impregnation of the Vasa warship in Stockholm for preservation after 1956 - the transformation of the Enola Gay into a museum exhibit by the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC between 1993 and 1995 (E12, E81) - the last renewal of the gold coating of the Toshogu shrine in Nikko, Japan In First Order Logic: E11(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P31 has modifiedop some E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
has sub-classes
E12 Productionc, E79 Part Additionc, E80 Part Removalc
is in domain of
P126 employedop, P31 has modifiedop
is in range of
P126 was employed inop, P31 was modified byop

E12 Productionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E12_Production

Scope note: This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items. It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered "new" if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered "new" because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one. This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not. Examples: - the construction of the SS Great Britain - the first casting of the Little Mermaid from the harbour of Copenhagen - Rembrandt's creating of the seventh state of his etching "Woman sitting half dressed beside a stove", 1658, identified by Bartsch Number 197 (E12,E65,E81) In First Order Logic: E12(x) ⊃ E11(x) E12(x) ⊃ E63(x)
has super-classes
E11 Modificationc
E63 Beginning of Existencec
P108 has producedop some E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is in domain of
P108 has producedop
is in range of
P108 was produced byop

E13 Attribute Assignmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E13_Attribute_Assignment

Scope note: This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts. This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules. In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries. Examples: - the assessment of the current ownership of Martin Doerr's silver cup in February 1997 In First Order Logic: E13(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P140 assigned attribute toop some E1 CRM Entityc
has sub-classes
E14 Condition Assessmentc, E15 Identifier Assignmentc, E16 Measurementc, E17 Type Assignmentc
is in domain of
P140 assigned attribute toop, P141 assignedop
is in range of
P140 was attributed byop, P141 was assigned byop

E14 Condition Assessmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E14_Condition_Assessment

Scope note: This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period. The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents. Examples: - last year's inspection of humidity damage to the frescos in the St. George chapel in our village In First Order Logic: E14(x) ⊃ E13(x)
has super-classes
E13 Attribute Assignmentc
P35 has identifiedop min 1
P34 concernedop some E18 Physical Thingc
is in domain of
P34 concernedop, P35 has identifiedop
is in range of
P34 was assessed byop, P35 was identified byop

E15 Identifier Assignmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E15_Identifier_Assignment

Scope note: This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure. Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item. The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as "preferred identifier assignment", to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property. Examples: - Replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens - Assigning the author-uniform title heading "Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil." for a work (E28) - On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading "Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377" (E42,E82) to Guillaume de Machaut (E21) In First Order Logic: E15(x) ⊃ E13(x)
has super-classes
E13 Attribute Assignmentc
P37 assignedop some E42 Identifierc
is in domain of
P142 used constituentop, P37 assignedop, P38 deassignedop
is in range of
P142 was used inop, P37 was assigned byop, P38 was deassigned byop

E16 Measurementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E16_Measurement

Scope note: This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure. Examples include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette. The E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of:) E55 Type. Examples: - measurement of height of silver cup 232 on the 31st August 1997 - the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996 [an about 400.000 years old Palaeolithic complete wooden spear found in Schoeningen, Niedersachsen, Germany in 1995] In First Order Logic: E16(x) ⊃ E13(x)
has super-classes
E13 Attribute Assignmentc
P40 observed dimensionop some E54 Dimensionc
P39 measuredop exactly 1
is in domain of
P39 measuredop, P40 observed dimensionop
is in range of
P39 was measured byop, P40 was observed inop

E17 Type Assignmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E17_Type_Assignment

Scope note: This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions and concepts. This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of "determination", i.e. the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology. Examples: - the first classification of object GE34604 as Lament Cloth, October 2nd - the determination of a cactus in Martin Doerr's garden as 'Cereus hildmannianus K.Schumann', July 2003 In First Order Logic: E17(x) ⊃ E13(x)
has super-classes
E13 Attribute Assignmentc
P42 assignedop some E55 Typec
P41 classifiedop exactly 1
is in domain of
P41 classifiedop, P42 assignedop
is in range of
P41 was classified byop, P42 was assigned byop

E18 Physical Thingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E18_Physical_Thing

Scope note: This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural. Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter. An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute the set. We model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E18 Physical Thing without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it, due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states. Examples: - the Cullinan Diamond (E19) - the cave "Ideon Andron" in Crete (E26) - the Mona Lisa (E22) In First Order Logic: E18(x) ⊃ E72(x) E18(x) ⊃ E92(x)
has super-classes
E72 Legal Objectc
E92 Spacetime Volumec
P13 was destroyed byop max 1
P45 consists ofop some E57 Materialc
P53 has former or current locationop some E53 Placec
has sub-classes
E19 Physical Objectc, E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc, E26 Physical Featurec
is in domain of
P111 was added byop, P113 was removed byop, P128 carriesop, P13 was destroyed byop, P156 occupiesop, P157 provides reference space forop, P24 changed ownership throughop, P30 custody transferred throughop, P34 was assessed byop, P44 has conditionop, P45 consists ofop, P46 forms part ofop, P46 is composed ofop, P49 has former or current keeperop, P50 has current keeperop, P51 has former or current ownerop, P52 has current ownerop, P53 has former or current locationop, P58 has section definitionop, P59 has sectionop, P8 witnessedop
is in range of
P111 addedop, P113 removedop, P13 destroyedop, P157 is at rest relative toop, P24 transferred title ofop, P30 transferred custody ofop, P34 concernedop, P44 is condition ofop, P45 is incorporated inop, P46 forms part ofop, P46 is composed ofop, P49 is former or current keeper ofop, P50 is current keeper ofop, P51 is former or current owner ofop, P52 is current owner ofop, P53 is former or current location ofop, P58 defines sectionop, P59 is located on or withinop, P8 took place on or withinop
is disjoint with
E28 Conceptual Objectc

E19 Physical Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E19_Physical_Object

Scope note: This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects. The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy). In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called "bona fide objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects. The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired. Examples: - John Smith - Aphrodite of Milos - the Palace of Knossos - the Cullinan diamond - Apollo 13 at the time of launch In First Order Logic: E19(x) ⊃ E18(x)
has super-classes
E18 Physical Thingc
P55 has current locationop max 1
P54 has current permanent locationop max 1
has sub-classes
E20 Biological Objectc, E22 Man-Made Objectc
is in domain of
P25 moved byop, P54 has current permanent locationop, P55 has current locationop, P56 bears featureop, P57 has number of partsdp
is in range of
P25 movedop, P54 is current permanent location ofop, P55 currently holdsop, P56 is found onop

E2 Temporal Entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E2_Temporal_Entity

Scope note: This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time. This extent in time must be contiguous, i.e., without gaps. In case the defining kinds of phenomena for an instance of E2 Temporal Entity cease to happen, and occur later again at another time, we regard that the former E2 Temporal Entity has ended and a new instance has come into existence. In more intuitive terms, the same event cannot happen twice. In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing. Examples: - Bronze Age (E4) - the earthquake in Lisbon 1755 (E5) - the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 (E3) In First Order Logic: E2(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
P4 has time-spanop exactly 1
has sub-classes
E3 Condition Statec, E4 Periodc
is in domain of
P114 is equal in time toop, P115 finishesop, P115 is finished byop, P116 is started byop, P116 startsop, P117 includesop, P117 occurs duringop, P118 is overlapped in time byop, P118 overlaps in time withop, P119 is met in time byop, P119 meets in time withop, P120 occurs afterop, P120 occurs beforeop, P4 has time-spanop
is in range of
P114 is equal in time toop, P115 finishesop, P115 is finished byop, P116 is started byop, P116 startsop, P117 includesop, P117 occurs duringop, P118 is overlapped in time byop, P118 overlaps in time withop, P119 is met in time byop, P119 meets in time withop, P120 occurs afterop, P120 occurs beforeop, P4 is time-span ofop
is disjoint with
E77 Persistent Itemc

E20 Biological Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E20_Biological_Object

Scope note: This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms. Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object. Examples: - me - Tut-Ankh-Amun - Boukephalas [Horse of Alexander the Great] - petrified dinosaur excrement PA1906-344 In First Order Logic: E20(x) ⊃ E19(x)
has super-classes
E19 Physical Objectc
has sub-classes
E21 Personc

E21 Personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E21_Person

Scope note: This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived. Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity. Examples: - Tut-Ankh-Amun - Nelson Mandela In First Order Logic: E21(x) ⊃ E20(x) E21(x) ⊃ E39(x)
has super-classes
E20 Biological Objectc
E39 Actorc
P98 was bornop exactly 1
P152 has parentop min 2
is in domain of
P100 died inop, P152 has parentop, P152 is parent ofop, P96 gave birthop, P97 was father forop, P98 was bornop
is in range of
P100 was death ofop, P152 has parentop, P152 is parent ofop, P96 by motherop, P97 from fatherop, P98 brought into lifeop

E22 Man-Made Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E22_Man-Made_Object

Scope note: This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object. Examples: - Mallard (the World's fastest steam engine) - the Portland Vase - the Coliseum In First Order Logic: E22(x) ⊃ E19(x) E22(x) ⊃ E24(x)
has super-classes
E19 Physical Objectc
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
has sub-classes
E84 Information Carrierc

E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E24_Physical_Man-Made_Thing

Scope note: This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity. This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a "cup and ring" carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. Examples: - the Forth Railway Bridge (E22) - the Channel Tunnel (E25) - the Historical Collection of the Museum Benaki in Athens (E78) In First Order Logic: E24(x) ⊃ E18(x) E24(x) ⊃ E71(x)
has super-classes
E18 Physical Thingc
E71 Man-Made Thingc
P108 was produced byop some E12 Productionc
has sub-classes
E22 Man-Made Objectc, E25 Man-Made Featurec, E78 Collectionc
is in domain of
P108 was produced byop, P110 was augmented byop, P112 was diminished byop, P31 was modified byop, P62 depictsop, P65 shows visual itemop
is in range of
P108 has producedop, P110 augmentedop, P112 diminishedop, P128 is carried byop, P31 has modifiedop, P62 is depicted byop, P65 is shown byop

E25 Man-Made Featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E25_Man-Made_Feature

Scope note: This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even "cup and ring" carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature. Examples: - the Manchester Ship Canal - Michael Jackson's nose following plastic surgery In First Order Logic: E25(x) ⊃ E26(x) E25(x) ⊃ E24(x)
has super-classes
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
E26 Physical Featurec

E26 Physical Featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E26_Physical_Feature

Scope note: This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects. Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not. Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature. This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of "bona fide objects". Examples: - the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal, which was carved out of solid rock - Albrecht Duerer's signature on his painting of Charles the Great - the damage to the nose of the Great Sphinx in Giza - Michael Jackson's nose prior to plastic surgery In First Order Logic: E26(x) ⊃ E18(x)
has super-classes
E18 Physical Thingc
P56 is found onop min 1
has sub-classes
E25 Man-Made Featurec, E27 Sitec
is in domain of
P56 is found onop
is in range of
P56 bears featureop

E27 Sitec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E27_Site

Scope note: This class comprises pieces of land or sea floor. In contrast to the purely geometric notion of E53 Place, this class describes constellations of matter on the surface of the Earth or other celestial body, which can be represented by photographs, paintings and maps. Instances of E27 Site are composed of relatively immobile material items and features in a particular configuration at a particular location. Examples: - the Amazon river basin - Knossos - the Apollo 11 landing site - Heathrow Airport - the submerged harbour of the Minoan settlement of Gournia, Crete In First Order Logic: E27(x)⊃ E26(x)
has super-classes
E26 Physical Featurec

E28 Conceptual Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E28_Conceptual_Object

Scope note: This class comprises non-material products of our minds and other human produced data that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation or historical implication. The production of such information may have been supported by the use of technical devices such as cameras or computers. Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc. They cannot be destroyed. They exist as long as they can be found on at least one carrier or in at least one human memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier and the last memory are lost. Examples: - Beethoven's "Ode an die Freude" (Ode to Joy) (E73) - the definition of "ontology" in the Oxford English Dictionary - the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner - 'Maxwell equations' [preferred subject access point from LCSH, http://lccn.loc.gov/sh85082387, as of 19 November 2012] - 'Equations, Maxwell' [variant subject access point, from the same source] In First Order Logic: E28(x) ⊃ E71(x)
has super-classes
E71 Man-Made Thingc
P94 was created byop some E65 Creationc
has sub-classes
E55 Typec, E89 Propositional Objectc, E90 Symbolic Objectc
is in domain of
P149 is identified byop, P94 was created byop
is in range of
P149 identifiesop, P94 has createdop
is disjoint with
E18 Physical Thingc

E29 Design or Procedurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E29_Design_or_Procedure

Scope note: This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing. Instances of E29 Design or Procedure can be structured in parts and sequences or depend on others. This is modelled using P69 has association with (is associated with).. Designs or procedures can be seen as one of the following: 1. A schema for the activities it describes 2. A schema of the products that result from their application. 3. An independent intellectual product that may have never been applied, such as Leonardo da Vinci's famous plans for flying machines. Because designs or procedures may never be applied or only partially executed, the CRM models a loose relationship between the plan and the respective product. Examples: - the ISO standardisation procedure - the musical notation of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" - the architectural drawings for the Kölner Dom in Cologne, Germany - The drawing on the folio 860 of the Codex Atlanticus from Leonardo da Vinci, 1486-1490, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan In First Order Logic: E29(x) ⊃ E73(x)
has super-classes
E73 Information Objectc
is in domain of
P33 was used byop, P68 foresees use ofop, P69 has association withop, P69 is associated withop
is in range of
P33 used specific techniqueop, P68 use foreseen byop, P69 has association withop, P69 is associated withop

E3 Condition Statec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E3_Condition_State

Scope note: This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span. An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held. The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State "condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847" can be characterized as E55 Type "wrecked". Examples: - the "Amber Room" in Tsarskoje Selo being completely reconstructed from summer 2003 until now - the Peterhof Palace near Saint Petersburg being in ruins from 1944 – 1946 - the state of my turkey in the oven at 14:30 on 25 December, 2002 (P2 has type: E55 Type "still not cooked") In First Order Logic: E3(x) ⊃ E2(x)
has super-classes
E2 Temporal Entityc
P44 is condition ofop some E18 Physical Thingc
is in domain of
P35 was identified byop, P44 is condition ofop, P5 consists ofop, P5 forms part ofop
is in range of
P35 has identifiedop, P44 has conditionop, P5 consists ofop, P5 forms part ofop

E30 Rightc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E30_Right

Scope note: This class comprises legal privileges concerning material and immaterial things or their derivatives. These include reproduction and property rights. Examples: - Copyright held by ISO on ISO/CD 21127 - ownership of the "Mona Lisa" by the Louvre In First Order Logic: E30(x) ⊃ E89(x
has super-classes
E89 Propositional Objectc
P104 applies toop some E72 Legal Objectc
is in domain of
P104 applies toop, P75 is possessed byop
is in range of
P104 is subject toop, P75 possessesop

E31 Documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E31_Document

Scope note: This class comprises identifiable immaterial items that make propositions about reality. These propositions may be expressed in text, graphics, images, audiograms, videograms or by other similar means. Documentation databases are regarded as a special case of E31 Document. This class should not be confused with the term "document" in Information Technology, which is compatible with E73 Information Object. Examples: - the Encyclopaedia Britannica (E32) - The image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E38) - the Doomsday Book In First Order Logic: E31(x) ⊃ E73(x)
has super-classes
E73 Information Objectc
P70 documentsop some E1 CRM Entityc
has sub-classes
E32 Authority Documentc
is in domain of
P70 documentsop
is in range of
P70 is documented inop

E32 Authority Documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E32_Authority_Document

Scope note: This class comprises encyclopaedia, thesauri, authority lists and other documents that define terminology or conceptual systems for consistent use. Examples: - Webster's Dictionary - Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus - the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model In First Order Logic: E32(x) ⊃ E31(x)
has super-classes
E31 Documentc
is in domain of
P71 listsop
is in range of
P71 is listed inop

E33 Linguistic Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E33_Linguistic_Object

Scope note: This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages. Instances of E33 Linguistic Object can be expressed in many ways: e.g. as written texts, recorded speech or sign language. However, the CRM treats instances of E33 Linguistic Object independently from the medium or method by which they are expressed. Expressions in formal languages, such as computer code or mathematical formulae, are not treated as instances of E33 Linguistic Object by the CRM. These should be modelled as instances of E73 Information Object. The text of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String Examples: - the text of the Ellesmere Chaucer manuscript - the lyrics of the song "Blue Suede Shoes" - the text of the Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll - the text of "Doktoro Jekyll kaj Sinjoro Hyde" (an Esperanto translation of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde) In First Order Logic: E33(x) ⊃ E73(x)
has super-classes
E73 Information Objectc
P73 is translation ofop max 1
P72 has languageop min 1
has sub-classes
E34 Inscriptionc, E35 Titlec
is in domain of
P72 has languageop, P73 has translationop, P73 is translation ofop
is in range of
P72 is language ofop, P73 has translationop, P73 is translation ofop

E34 Inscriptionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E34_Inscription

Scope note: This class comprises recognisable, short texts attached to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. The transcription of the text can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. The alphabet used can be documented by P2 has type: E55 Type. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. The physical embodiment is modelled in the CRM as E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. The relationship of a physical copy of a book to the text it contains is modelled using E84 Information Carrier. P128 carries (is carried by): E33 Linguistic Object. Examples: - "keep off the grass" on a sign stuck in the lawn of the quad of Balliol College - The text published in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum V 895 - Kilroy was here In First Order Logic: E34(x) ⊃ E33(x) E34(x) ⊃ E37(x)
has super-classes
E33 Linguistic Objectc
E37 Markc

E35 Titlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E35_Title

Scope note: This class comprises the names assigned to works, such as texts, artworks or pieces of music. Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as "chair", "painting" or "book" (the latter are common nouns that stand for instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group. This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts. Examples: - "The Merchant of Venice" - "Mona Lisa" - "La Pie or The Magpie" - "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" In First Order Logic: E35(x) ⊃ E33(x) E35(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E33 Linguistic Objectc
E41 Appellationc
is in domain of
P102 is title ofop
is in range of
P102 has titleop

E36 Visual Itemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E36_Visual_Item

Scope note: This class comprises the intellectual or conceptual aspects of recognisable marks and images. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of a visual item, but the underlying prototype. For example, a mark such as the ICOM logo is generally considered to be the same logo when used on any number of publications. The size, orientation and colour may change, but the logo remains uniquely identifiable. The same is true of images that are reproduced many times. This means that visual items are independent of their physical support. The class E36 Visual Item provides a means of identifying and linking together instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that carry the same visual symbols, marks or images etc. The property P62 depicts (is depicted by) between E24 Physical Man-Made Thing and depicted subjects (E1 CRM Entity) can be regarded as a short-cut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity, which in addition captures the optical features of the depiction. Examples: - the visual appearance of Monet's "La Pie" (E38) - the Coca-Cola logo (E34) - the Chi-Rho (E37) - the communist red star (E37) In First Order Logic: E36(x) ⊃ E73(x)
has super-classes
E73 Information Objectc
has sub-classes
E37 Markc, E38 Imagec
is in domain of
P138 representsop, P65 is shown byop
is in range of
P138 has representationop, P65 shows visual itemop

E37 Markc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E37_Mark

Scope note: This class comprises symbols, signs, signatures or short texts applied to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing by arbitrary techniques in order to indicate the creator, owner, dedications, purpose, etc. This class specifically excludes features that have no semantic significance, such as scratches or tool marks. These should be documented as instances of E25 Man-Made Feature. Examples:  Minoan double axe mark  ©   In First Order Logic: E37(x) ⊃ E36(x)
has super-classes
E36 Visual Itemc
has sub-classes
E34 Inscriptionc

E38 Imagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E38_Image

Scope note: This class comprises distributions of form, tone and colour that may be found on surfaces such as photos, paintings, prints and sculptures or directly on electronic media. The degree to which variations in the distribution of form and colour affect the identity of an instance of E38 Image depends on a given purpose. The original painting of the Mona Lisa in the Louvre may be said to bear the same instance of E38 Image as reproductions in the form of transparencies, postcards, posters or T-shirts, even though they may differ in size and carrier and may vary in tone and colour. The images in a "spot the difference" competition are not the same with respect to their context, however similar they may at first appear. Examples: - the front side of all 20 Swiss Frs notes - the image depicted on all reproductions of the Mona Lisa In First Order Logic: E38(x) ⊃ E36(x)
has super-classes
E36 Visual Itemc

E39 Actorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39_Actor

Scope note: This class comprises people, either individually or in groups, who have the potential to perform intentional actions of kinds for which someone may be held responsible. The CRM does not attempt to model the inadvertent actions of such actors. Individual people should be documented as instances of E21 Person, whereas groups should be documented as instances of either E74 Group or its subclass E40 Legal Body. Examples: - London and Continental Railways (E40) - the Governor of the Bank of England in 1975 (E21) - Sir Ian McKellan (E21) In First Order Logic: E39(x) ⊃ E77(x)
has super-classes
E77 Persistent Itemc
has sub-classes
E21 Personc, E74 Groupc
is in domain of
P105 has right onop, P107 is current or former member ofop, P109 is current or former curator ofop, P11 participated inop, P131 is identified byop, P143 was joined byop, P145 left byop, P49 is former or current keeper ofop, P51 is former or current owner ofop, P74 has current or former residenceop, P75 possessesop, P76 has contact pointop
is in range of
P105 right held byop, P107 has current or former memberop, P109 has current or former curatorop, P11 had participantop, P131 identifiesop, P49 has former or current keeperop, P51 has former or current ownerop, P74 is current or former residence ofop, P75 is possessed byop, P76 provides access toop

E4 Periodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E4_Period

Scope note: This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space. It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the “ground” or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods. Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the “Neolithic Period”, the “Ming Dynasty” or the “McCarthy Era”, but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor. As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area. We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type. Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh. Examples: Jurassic European Bronze Age Italian Renaissance Thirty Years War Sturm und Drang Cubism In First Order Logic: E4(x) ⊃ E2(x) E4(x) ⊃ E92(x)
has super-classes
E2 Temporal Entityc
E92 Spacetime Volumec
P7 took place atop some E53 Placec
has sub-classes
E5 Eventc
is in domain of
P7 took place atop, P8 took place on or withinop, P9 consists ofop, P9 forms part ofop
is in range of
P7 witnessedop, P8 witnessedop, P9 consists ofop, P9 forms part ofop

E40 Legal Bodyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E40_Legal_Body

Scope note: This class comprises institutions or groups of people that have obtained a legal recognition as a group and can act collectively as agents. This means that they can perform actions, own property, create or destroy things and can be held collectively responsible for their actions like individual people. The term 'personne morale' is often used for this in French. Examples: - Greenpeace - Paveprime Ltd - the National Museum of Denmark In First Order Logic: E40(x) ⊃ E74(x)
has super-classes
E74 Groupc
P75 possessesop some E30 Rightc

E41 Appellationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E41_Appellation

Scope note: This class comprises signs, either meaningful or not, or arrangements of signs following a specific syntax, that are used or can be used to refer to and identify a specific instance of some class or category within a certain context. Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify things by their meaning, even if they happen to have one, but instead by convention, tradition, or agreement. Instances of E41 Appellation are cultural constructs; as such, they have a context, a history, and a use in time and space by some group of users. A given instance of E41 Appellation can have alternative forms, i.e., other instances of E41 Appellation that are always regarded as equivalent independent from the thing it denotes. Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of a characteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised. E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. Cf. E15 Identifier Assignment Examples: - "Martin" - "the Forth Bridge" - "the Merchant of Venice" (E35) - "Spigelia marilandica (L.) L." [not the species, just the name] - "information science" [not the science itself, but the name through which we refer to it in an English-speaking context] - “安” [Chinese "an", meaning "peace"] In First Order Logic: E41(x) ⊃ E90(x)
has super-classes
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has sub-classes
E35 Titlec, E42 Identifierc, E44 Place Appellationc, E49 Time Appellationc, E51 Contact Pointc, E75 Conceptual Object Appellationc, E82 Actor Appellationc
is in domain of
P1 identifiesop, P139 has alternative formop
is in range of
P1 is identified byop, P139 has alternative formop

E42 Identifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E42_Identifier

Scope note: This class comprises strings or codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents. Examples: - "MM.GE.195" - "13.45.1976" - "OXCMS: 1997.4.1" - ISSN "0041-5278" - ISRC "FIFIN8900116" - Shelf mark "Res 8 P 10" - "Guillaume de Machaut (1300?-1377)" [a controlled personal name heading that follows the French rules] In First Order Logic: E42(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
is in domain of
P37 was assigned byop, P38 was deassigned byop, P48 is preferred identifier ofop
is in range of
P37 assignedop, P38 deassignedop, P48 has preferred identifierop

E44 Place Appellationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E44_Place_Appellation

Scope note: This class comprises any sort of identifier characteristically used to refer to an E53 Place. Instances of E44 Place Appellation may vary in their degree of precision and their meaning may vary over time - the same instance of E44 Place Appellation may be used to refer to several places, either because of cultural shifts, or because objects used as reference points have moved around. Instances of E44 Place Appellation can be extremely varied in form: postal addresses, instances of E47 Spatial Coordinate, and parts of buildings can all be considered as instances of E44 Place Appellation. Examples: - "Vienna" - "CH-1211, Genève" - "Aquae Sulis Minerva" - "Bath" - "Cambridge" - "the Other Place" - "the City" In First Order Logic: E44(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
has sub-classes
E45 Addressc, E46 Section Definitionc, E47 Spatial Coordinatesc, E48 Place Namec
is in domain of
P87 identifiesop
is in range of
P87 is identified byop

E45 Addressc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E45_Address

Scope note: This class comprises identifiers expressed in coding systems for places, such as postal addresses used for mailing. An E45 Address can be considered both as the name of an E53 Place and as an E51 Contact Point for an E39 Actor. This dual aspect is reflected in the multiple inheritance. However, some forms of mailing addresses, such as a postal box, are only instances of E51 Contact Point, since they do not identify any particular Place. These should not be documented as instances of E45 Address. Examples: - "1-29-3 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 121, Japan" - "Rue David Dufour 5, CH-1211, Genève" In First Order Logic: E45(x) ⊃ E44(x) E45(x) ⊃ E51(x)
has super-classes
E44 Place Appellationc
E51 Contact Pointc

E46 Section Definitionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E46_Section_Definition

Scope note: This class comprises areas of objects referred to in terms specific to the general geometry or structure of its kind. The 'prow' of the boat, the 'frame' of the picture, the 'front' of the building are all instances of E46 Section Definition. The class highlights the fact that parts of objects can be treated as locations. This holds in particular for features without natural boundaries, such as the "head" of a marble statue made out of one block (cf. E53 Place). In answer to the question 'where is the signature?' one might reply 'on the lower left corner'. (Section Definition is closely related to the term "segment" in Gerstl, P.& Pribbenow, S, 1996 " A conceptual theory of part – whole relations and its applications", Data & Knowledge Engineering 20 305-322, North Holland- Elsevier). Examples: - "the entrance lobby to the Ripley Center" - "the poop deck of H.M.S Victory" - "the Venus de Milo's left buttock" - "left inner side of my box" In First Order Logic: E46(x) ⊃ E44(x)
has super-classes
E44 Place Appellationc
P58 defines sectionop min 1
is in domain of
P58 defines sectionop
is in range of
P58 has section definitionop

E47 Spatial Coordinatesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E47_Spatial_Coordinates

Scope note: This class comprises the textual or numeric information required to locate specific instances of E53 Place within schemes of spatial identification. Coordinates are a specific form of E44 Place Appellation, that is, a means of referring to a particular E53 Place. Coordinates are not restricted to longitude, latitude and altitude. Any regular system of reference that maps onto an E19 Physical Object can be used to generate coordinates. Examples: - "6°5'29"N 45°12'13"W" - "Black queen's bishop 4" [chess coordinate]. In First Order Logic: E47(x) ⊃ E44(x)
has super-classes
E44 Place Appellationc

E48 Place Namec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E48_Place_Name

Scope note: This class comprises particular and common forms of E44 Place Appellation. Place Names may change their application over time: the name of an E53 Place may change, and a name may be reused for a different E53 Place. Instances of E48 Place Name are typically subject to place name gazetteers. Examples: - "Greece" - "Athens" - "Geneva" - "Lac Léman" In First Order Logic: E48(x) ⊃ E44(x)
has super-classes
E44 Place Appellationc

E49 Time Appellationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E49_Time_Appellation

Scope note: This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods, and dates, which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span. The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, "Before Christ" for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. 'the duration of the Ming Dynasty'. Examples: - "Meiji" [Japanese term for a specific time-span] - "1st half of the XX century" - "Quaternary" - "1215 Hegira" [a date in the Islamic calendar] - "Last century" In First Order Logic: E49(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
has sub-classes
E50 Datec
is in domain of
P78 identifiesop
is in range of
P78 is identified byop

E5 Eventc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5_Event

Scope note: This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses. The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an 'instantaneous' change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state. Examples: - the birth of Cleopatra (E67) - the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD (E6) - World War II (E7) - the Battle of Stalingrad (E7) - the Yalta Conference (E7) - my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 (E7) - the falling of a tile from my roof last Sunday - the CIDOC Conference 2003 (E7) In First Order Logic: E5(x) ⊃ E4(x)
has super-classes
E4 Periodc
P12 occurred in the presence ofop some E77 Persistent Itemc
has sub-classes
E63 Beginning of Existencec, E64 End of Existencec, E7 Activityc
is in domain of
P11 had participantop, P12 occurred in the presence ofop, P20 was purpose ofop
is in range of
P11 participated inop, P12 was present atop, P20 had specific purposeop

E50 Datec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E50_Date

Scope note: This class comprises specific forms of E49 Time Appellation. Dates may vary in their degree of precision. Examples: - "1900" - "4-4-1959" - "19-MAR-1922" - "19640604" In First Order Logic: E50(x) ⊃ E49(x)
has super-classes
E49 Time Appellationc

E51 Contact Pointc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E51_Contact_Point

Scope note: This class comprises identifiers employed, or understood, by communication services to direct communications to an instance of E39 Actor. These include E-mail addresses, telephone numbers, post office boxes, Fax numbers, URLs etc. Most postal addresses can be considered both as instances of E44 Place Appellation and E51 Contact Point. In such cases the subclass E45 Address should be used. URLs are addresses used by machines to access another machine through an http request. Since the accessed machine acts on behalf of the E39 Actor providing the machine, URLs are considered as instances of E51 Contact Point to that E39 Actor. Examples: - "+41 22 418 5571" - "weasel@paveprime.com" In First Order Logic: E51(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
P76 provides access toop some E39 Actorc
has sub-classes
E45 Addressc
is in domain of
P76 provides access toop
is in range of
P76 has contact pointop

E52 Time-Spanc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E52_Time-Span

Scope note: This class comprises abstract temporal extents, in the sense of Galilean physics, having a beginning, an end and a duration. Time Span has no other semantic connotations. Time-Spans are used to define the temporal extent of instances of E4 Period, E5 Event and any other phenomena valid for a certain time. An E52 Time-Span may be identified by one or more instances of E49 Time Appellation. Since our knowledge of history is imperfect, instances of E52 Time-Span can best be considered as approximations of the actual Time-Spans of temporal entities. The properties of E52 Time-Span are intended to allow these approximations to be expressed precisely. An extreme case of approximation, might, for example, define an E52 Time-Span having unknown beginning, end and duration. Used as a common E52 Time-Span for two events, it would nevertheless define them as being simultaneous, even if nothing else was known. Automatic processing and querying of instances of E52 Time-Span is facilitated if data can be parsed into an E61 Time Primitive. Examples: - 1961 - from 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996 - 14h30 - 16h22 4th July 1945 - 9.30 am 1.1.1999 to 2.00 pm 1.1.1999 - duration of the Ming Dynasty In First Order Logic: E52(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
P4 is time-span ofop some E2 Temporal Entityc
P84 had at most durationop max 1
P83 had at least durationop max 1
is in domain of
P4 is time-span ofop, P78 is identified byop, P79 beginning is qualified bydp, P80 end is qualified bydp, P81 ongoing throughoutdp, P82 at some time withindp, P83 had at least durationop, P84 had at most durationop, P86 containsop, P86 falls withinop, p164i was time span ofop
is in range of
P160 has temporal projectionop, P164 is restricted byop, P4 has time-spanop, P78 identifiesop, P83 was minimum duration ofop, P84 was maximum duration ofop, P86 containsop, P86 falls withinop

E53 Placec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E53_Place

Scope note: This class comprises extents in space, in particular on the surface of the earth, in the pure sense of physics: independent from temporal phenomena and matter. The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of "immobile" objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame. It may be identified by one or more instances of E44 Place Appellation. It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object – H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance. Any object can serve as a frame of reference for E53 Place determination. The model foresees the notion of a "section" of an E19 Physical Object as a valid E53 Place determination. Examples: - the extent of the UK in the year 2003 - the position of the hallmark on the inside of my wedding ring - the place referred to in the phrase: "Fish collected at three miles north of the confluence of the Arve and the Rhone" - here -> <- In First Order Logic: E53(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
P59 is located on or withinop max 1
is in domain of
P121 overlaps withop, P122 borders withop, P157 is at rest relative toop, P26 was destination ofop, P27 was origin ofop, P53 is former or current location ofop, P54 is current permanent location ofop, P55 currently holdsop, P59 is located on or withinop, P7 witnessedop, P74 is current or former residence ofop, P87 is identified byop, P89 containsop, P89 falls withinop, p167i was place ofop, p168 place is defined bydp
is in range of
P121 overlaps withop, P122 borders withop, P156 occupiesop, P157 provides reference space forop, P161 has spatial projectionop, P26 moved toop, P27 moved fromop, P53 has former or current locationop, P54 has current permanent locationop, P55 has current locationop, P59 has sectionop, P7 took place atop, P74 has current or former residenceop, P87 identifiesop, P89 containsop, P89 falls withinop, p167 atop

E54 Dimensionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E54_Dimension

Scope note: This class comprises quantifiable properties that can be measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by values, i.e. points or regions in a mathematical or conceptual space, such as natural or real numbers, RGB values etc. An instance of E54 Dimension represents the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation of the values of an instance of E54 Dimension. If the true values belong to a non-discrete space, such as spatial distances, it is recommended to record them as approximations by intervals or regions of indeterminacy enclosing the assumed true values. For instance, a length of 5 cm may be recorded as 4.5-5.5 cm, according to the precision of the respective observation. Note, that interoperability of values described in different units depends critically on the representation as value regions. Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate. Examples: - currency: £26.00 - length: 3.9-4.1 cm - diameter: 26 mm - weight: 150 lbs - density: 0.85 gm/cc - luminescence: 56 ISO lumens - tin content: 0.46 % - taille au garot: 5 hands - calibrated C14 date: 2460-2720 years, etc In First Order Logic: E54(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
P91 has unitop exactly 1
is in domain of
P40 was observed inop, P43 is dimension ofop, P83 was minimum duration ofop, P84 was maximum duration ofop, P90 has valuedp, P91 has unitop
is in range of
P40 observed dimensionop, P43 has dimensionop, P83 had at least durationop, P84 had at most durationop, P91 is unit ofop

E55 Typec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E55_Type

Scope note: This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes. E55 Type is the CRM's interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties. Examples: - weight, length, depth [types of E54] - portrait, sketch, animation [types of E38] - French, English, German [E56] - excellent, good, poor [types of E3] - Ford Model T, chop stick [types of E22] - cave, doline, scratch [types of E26] - poem, short story [types of E33] - wedding, earthquake, skirmish [types of E5] In First Order Logic: E55(x) ⊃ E28(x)
has super-classes
E28 Conceptual Objectc
P135 was created byop max 1
has sub-classes
E56 Languagec, E57 Materialc, E58 Measurement Unitc
is in domain of
P101 was use ofop, P103 was intention ofop, P125 was type of object used inop, P127 has broader termop, P127 has narrower termop, P135 was created byop, P137 is exemplified byop, P150 defines typical parts ofop, P150 defines typical wholes forop, P2 is type ofop, P21 was purpose ofop, P32 was technique ofop, P42 was assigned byop
is in range of
P101 had as general useop, P103 was intended forop, P125 used object of typeop, P127 has broader termop, P127 has narrower termop, P135 created typeop, P137 exemplifiesop, P150 defines typical parts ofop, P150 defines typical wholes forop, P2 has typeop, P21 had general purposeop, P32 used general techniqueop, P42 assignedop

E56 Languagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E56_Language

Scope note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the natural languages in the sense of concepts. This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E56 Language, e.g.: "instances of Mandarin Chinese". It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used to denote instances of E56 Language, such as those defined in ISO 639:1988. Examples: - el [Greek] - en [English] - eo [Esperanto] - es [Spanish] - fr [French] In First Order Logic: E56(x) ⊃ E55(x)
has super-classes
E55 Typec
is in domain of
P72 is language ofop
is in range of
P72 has languageop

E57 Materialc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E57_Material

Scope note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the concepts of materials. Instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of). This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E57 Material, e.g.: "instances of gold". It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used. Examples: - brick - gold - aluminium - polycarbonate - resin In First Order Logic: E57(x) ⊃ E55(x)
has super-classes
E55 Typec
is in domain of
P126 was employed inop, P45 is incorporated inop, P68 use foreseen byop
is in range of
P126 employedop, P45 consists ofop, P68 foresees use ofop

E58 Measurement Unitc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E58_Measurement_Unit

Scope note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the types of measurement units: feet, inches, centimetres, litres, lumens, etc. This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E58 Measurement Unit, e.g.: "instances of cm". Système International (SI) units or internationally recognized non-SI terms should be used whenever possible. (ISO 1000:1992). Archaic Measurement Units used in historical records should be preserved. Examples: - cm [centrimetre] - km [kilometre] - m [meter] - m/s [meters per second] - A [Ampere] - GRD [Greek Drachme] - C° [degrees centigrade] In First Order Logic: E58(x) ⊃ E55(x)
has super-classes
E55 Typec
P91 is unit ofop some E54 Dimensionc
is in domain of
P91 is unit ofop
is in range of
P91 has unitop

E6 Destructionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E6_Destruction

Scope note: This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation. Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity. The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive: 1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction. 2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not. 3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification. Examples: - the destruction of Herculaneum by volcanic eruption in 79 AD - the destruction of Nineveh (E6, E7) - the breaking of a champagne glass yesterday by my dog In First Order Logic: E6(x) ⊃ E64(x)
has super-classes
E64 End of Existencec
P13 destroyedop some E18 Physical Thingc
is in domain of
P13 destroyedop
is in range of
P13 was destroyed byop

E63 Beginning of Existencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E63_Beginning_of_Existence

Scope note: This class comprises events that bring into existence any E77 Persistent Item. It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (intellectual products, physical items, groups of people, living beings) beginning to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus post quem and ante quem. Examples: - the birth of my child - the birth of Snoopy, my dog - the calving of the iceberg that sank the Titanic - the construction of the Eiffel Tower In First Order Logic: E63(x) ⊃ E5(x)
has super-classes
E5 Eventc
P92 brought into existenceop some E77 Persistent Itemc
has sub-classes
E12 Productionc, E65 Creationc, E66 Formationc, E67 Birthc, E81 Transformationc
is in domain of
P92 brought into existenceop
is in range of
P92 was brought into existence byop

E64 End of Existencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E64_End_of_Existence

Scope note: This class comprises events that end the existence of any E77 Persistent Item. It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (physical items, groups of people, living beings) ceasing to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus postquem and antequem. In cases where substance from a Persistent Item continues to exist in a new form, the process would be documented by E81 Transformation. Examples: - the death of Snoopy, my dog - the melting of the snowman - the burning of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesos by Herostratos in 356BC In First Order Logic: E64(x) ⊃ E5(x)
has super-classes
E5 Eventc
P93 took out of existenceop some E77 Persistent Itemc
has sub-classes
E6 Destructionc, E68 Dissolutionc, E69 Deathc, E81 Transformationc
is in domain of
P93 took out of existenceop
is in range of
P93 was taken out of existence byop

E65 Creationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E65_Creation

Scope note: This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, types etc. Examples: - the framing of the U.S. Constitution - the drafting of U.N. resolution 1441 In First Order Logic: E65(x) ⊃ E7(x) E65(x) ⊃ E63(x)
has super-classes
E63 Beginning of Existencec
E7 Activityc
P94 has createdop some E28 Conceptual Objectc
has sub-classes
E83 Type Creationc
is in domain of
P94 has createdop
is in range of
P94 was created byop

E66 Formationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E66_Formation

Scope note: This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation. E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective. The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not require that the group is populated with members at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining. Examples:  the formation of the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group  the formation of the Soviet Union  the conspiring of the murderers of Caesar In First Order Logic: E66(x) ⊃ E7(x) E66(x) ⊃ E63(x)
has super-classes
E63 Beginning of Existencec
E7 Activityc
P95 has formedop some E74 Groupc
is in domain of
P151 was formed fromop, P95 has formedop
is in range of
P151 participated inop, P95 was formed byop

E67 Birthc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E67_Birth

Scope note: This class comprises the births of human beings. E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life. (E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living beings). Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same E67 Birth event. The introduction of the E67 Birth event as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model. Suitable extensions may describe more details and the complexity of motherhood with the intervention of modern medicine. In this model, the biological father is not seen as a necessary participant in the E67 Birth event. Examples: - the birth of Alexander the Great In First Order Logic: E67(x) ⊃ E63(x)
has super-classes
E63 Beginning of Existencec
P97 from fatherop some E21 Personc
P96 by motherop some E21 Personc
is in domain of
P96 by motherop, P97 from fatherop, P98 brought into lifeop
is in range of
P96 gave birthop, P97 was father forop, P98 was bornop

E68 Dissolutionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E68_Dissolution

Scope note: This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an E74 Group of people. If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an E7 Activity. Examples: - the fall of the Roman Empire - the liquidation of Enron Corporation In First Order Logic: E68(x) ⊃ E64(x)
has super-classes
E64 End of Existencec
P99 dissolvedop some E74 Groupc
is in domain of
P99 dissolvedop
is in range of
P99 was dissolved byop

E69 Deathc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E69_Death

Scope note: This class comprises the deaths of human beings. If a person is killed, their death should be instantiated as E69 Death and as E7 Activity. The death or perishing of other living beings should be documented using E64 End of Existence. Examples: - the murder of Julius Caesar (E69,E7) - the death of Senator Paul Wellstone In First Order Logic: E69(x) ⊃ E64(x)
has super-classes
E64 End of Existencec
P100 was death ofop some E21 Personc
is in domain of
P100 was death ofop
is in range of
P100 died inop

E7 Activityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E7_Activity

Scope note: This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented. This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door. Examples: - the Battle of Stalingrad - the Yalta Conference - my birthday celebration 28-6-1995 - the writing of "Faust" by Goethe (E65) - the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66) - calling the place identified by TGN '7017998' 'Quyunjig' by the people of Iraq - Kira Weber working in glass art from 1984 to 1993 - Kira Weber working in oil and pastel painting from 1993 In First Order Logic: E7(x) ⊃ E5(x)
has super-classes
E5 Eventc
P14 carried out byop some E39 Actorc
has sub-classes
E10 Transfer of Custodyc, E11 Modificationc, E13 Attribute Assignmentc, E65 Creationc, E66 Formationc, E8 Acquisitionc, E85 Joiningc, E86 Leavingc, E87 Curation Activityc, E9 Movec
is in domain of
P125 used object of typeop, P134 continuedop, P134 was continued byop, P14 carried out byop, P15 was influenced byop, P16 used specific objectop, P17 was motivated byop, P19 was intended use ofop, P20 had specific purposeop, P21 had general purposeop, P32 used general techniqueop, P33 used specific techniqueop
is in range of
P125 was type of object used inop, P134 continuedop, P134 was continued byop, P14 performedop, P15 influencedop, P16 was used forop, P17 motivatedop, P19 was made forop, P20 was purpose ofop, P21 was purpose ofop, P32 was technique ofop, P33 was used byop

E70 Thingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E70_Thing

Scope note: This general class comprises discrete, identifiable, instances of E77 Persistent Item that are documented as single units, that either consist of matter or depend on being carried by matter and are characterized by relative stability. They may be intellectual products or physical things. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be a logical concept or structure. Examples: - my photograph collection (E78) - the bottle of milk in my refrigerator (E22) - the plan of the Strassburger Muenster (E29) - the thing on the top of Otto Hahn's desk (E19) - the form of the no-smoking sign (E36) - the cave of Dirou, Mani, Greece (E27) In First Order Logic: E70(x) ⊃ E77(x)
has super-classes
E77 Persistent Itemc
has sub-classes
E71 Man-Made Thingc, E72 Legal Objectc
is in domain of
P101 had as general useop, P130 features are also found onop, P130 shows features ofop, P16 was used forop, P43 has dimensionop
is in range of
P101 was use ofop, P130 features are also found onop, P130 shows features ofop, P16 used specific objectop, P43 is dimension ofop

E71 Man-Made Thingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E71_Man-Made_Thing

Scope note: This class comprises discrete, identifiable man-made items that are documented as single units. These items are either intellectual products or man-made physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concepts or structures. Examples: - Beethoven's 5th Symphony (E73) - Michelangelo's David - Einstein's Theory of General Relativity (E73) - the taxon 'Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758' (E55) In First Order Logic: E71(x) ⊃ E70(x)
has super-classes
E70 Thingc
has sub-classes
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc, E28 Conceptual Objectc
is in domain of
P102 has titleop, P103 was intended forop, P19 was made forop
is in range of
P102 is title ofop, P103 was intention ofop, P19 was intended use ofop

E72 Legal Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E72_Legal_Object

Scope note: This class comprises those material or immaterial items to which instances of E30 Right, such as the right of ownership or use, can be applied. This is true for all E18 Physical Thing. In the case of instances of E28 Conceptual Object, however, the identity of the E28 Conceptual Object or the method of its use may be too ambiguous to reliably establish instances of E30 Right, as in the case of taxa and inspirations. Ownership of corporations is currently regarded as out of scope of the CRM. Examples: - the Cullinan diamond (E19) - definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Version 2.1 (E73) In First Order Logic: E72(x) ⊃ E70(x)
has super-classes
E70 Thingc
P105 right held byop some E39 Actorc
P104 is subject toop some E30 Rightc
has sub-classes
E18 Physical Thingc, E90 Symbolic Objectc
is in domain of
P104 is subject toop, P105 right held byop
is in range of
P104 applies toop, P105 has right onop

E73 Information Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E73_Information_Object

Scope note: This class comprises identifiable immaterial items, such as a poems, jokes, data sets, images, texts, multimedia objects, procedural prescriptions, computer program code, algorithm or mathematical formulae, that have an objectively recognizable structure and are documented as single units. The encoding structure known as a "named graph" also falls under this class, so that each "named graph" is an instance of an E73 Information Object. An E73 Information Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. Instances of E73 Information Object of a linguistic nature should be declared as instances of the E33 Linguistic Object subclass. Instances of E73 Information Object of a documentary nature should be declared as instances of the E31 Document subclass. Conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E73 Information Object, nor are ideas without a reproducible expression. Examples: - image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London - E. A. Poe's "The Raven" - the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa - the Maxwell Equations - The Getty AAT as published as Linked Open Data, accessed 1/10/2014 In First Order Logic: E73(x) ⊃ E89(x) E73(x) ⊃ E90(x)
has super-classes
E89 Propositional Objectc
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has sub-classes
E29 Design or Procedurec, E31 Documentc, E33 Linguistic Objectc, E36 Visual Itemc
is in domain of
p165 incorporatesop

E74 Groupc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E74_Group

Scope note: This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of E39 Actors that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship. In the wider sense this class also comprises official positions which used to be regarded in certain contexts as one actor, independent of the current holder of the office, such as the president of a country. In such cases, it may happen that the Group never had more than one member. A joint pseudonym (i.e., a name that seems indicative of an individual but that is actually used as a persona by two or more people) is a particular case of E74 Group.. A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modelled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup). Married couples and other concepts of family are regarded as particular examples of E74 Group. Examples: - the impressionists - the Navajo - the Greeks - the peace protestors in New York City on February 15 2003 - Exxon-Mobil - King Solomon and his wives - the President of the Swiss Confederation - Nicolas Bourbaki - Betty Crocker - Ellery Queen In First Order Logic: E74(x) ⊃ E39(x)
has super-classes
E39 Actorc
P107 has current or former memberop min 2
P146 lost member byop min 0
P144 gained member byop min 2
P95 was formed byop max 1
has sub-classes
E40 Legal Bodyc
is in domain of
P107 has current or former memberop, P144 gained member byop, P146 lost member byop, P151 participated inop, P95 was formed byop, P99 was dissolved byop
is in range of
P107 is current or former member ofop, P144 joined withop, P146 separated fromop, P151 was formed fromop, P95 has formedop, P99 dissolvedop

E75 Conceptual Object Appellationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E75_Conceptual_Object_Appellation

Scope note: This class comprises all appellations specific to intellectual products or standardized patterns. This class comprises appellations that are by their form or syntax specific to identifying instances of E28 Conceptual Object, such as intellectual products, standardized patterns etc. Examples: - "ISBN 3-7913-1418-1" - "ISO 2788-1986 (F)" - "DOI=10.1109/MIS.2007.103" In First Order Logic: E75(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
is in domain of
P149 identifiesop
is in range of
P149 is identified byop

E77 Persistent Itemc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E77_Persistent_Item

Scope note: This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, sometimes known as "endurants" in philosophy. They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, animals or things, or conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination or common names. The criteria that determine the identity of an item are often difficult to establish -; the decision depends largely on the judgement of the observer. For example, a building is regarded as no longer existing if it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, yet preserve their identity by other criteria. Similarly, inanimate objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. The class E77 Persistent Item does not take any position about the nature of the applicable identity criteria and if actual knowledge about identity of an instance of this class exists. There may be cases, where the identity of an E77 Persistent Item is not decidable by a certain state of knowledge. The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties. Examples: - Leonardo da Vinci - Stonehenge - the hole in the ozone layer - the First Law of Thermodynamics - the Bermuda Triangle In First Order Logic: E77(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
has sub-classes
E39 Actorc, E70 Thingc
is in domain of
P12 was present atop, P123 resulted fromop, P124 was transformed byop, P92 was brought into existence byop, P93 was taken out of existence byop
is in range of
P12 occurred in the presence ofop, P123 resulted inop, P124 transformedop, P92 brought into existenceop, P93 took out of existenceop
is disjoint with
E2 Temporal Entityc

E78 Collectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E78_Collection

Scope note: This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained ("curated" and "preserved," in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan. Items may be added or removed from an E78 Collection in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Collection often referred to with the name of the E78 Collection (e.g. "The Wallace Collection decided…"). Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Collection. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality. Examples: - The John Clayton Herbarium - the Wallace Collection - Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Trondheim, Norway In First Order Logic: E78(x) ⊃ E24(x)
has super-classes
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
P109 has current or former curatorop some E39 Actorc
is in domain of
P109 has current or former curatorop, P147 was curated byop
is in range of
P109 is current or former curator ofop, P147 curatedop

E79 Part Additionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E79_Part_Addition

Scope note: This class comprises activities that result in an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing being increased, enlarged or augmented by the addition of a part. Typical scenarios include the attachment of an accessory, the integration of a component, the addition of an element to an aggregate object, or the accessioning of an object into a curated E78 Collection. Objects to which parts are added are, by definition, man-made, since the addition of a part implies a human activity. Following the addition of parts, the resulting man-made assemblages are treated objectively as single identifiable wholes, made up of constituent or component parts bound together either physically (for example the engine becoming a part of the car), or by sharing a common purpose (such as the 32 chess pieces that make up a chess set). This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history and continuity of identity of objects that are integrated into other objects over time, such as precious gemstones being repeatedly incorporated into different items of jewellery, or cultural artifacts being added to different museum instances of E78 Collection over their lifespan. Examples: - the setting of the koh-i-noor diamond into the crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother - the addition of the painting "Room in Brooklyn" by Edward Hopper to the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston In First Order Logic: E79(x) ⊃ E11(x)
has super-classes
E11 Modificationc
P110 augmentedop some E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
P111 addedop some E18 Physical Thingc
is in domain of
P110 augmentedop, P111 addedop
is in range of
P110 was augmented byop, P111 was added byop

E8 Acquisitionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E8_Acquisition

Scope note: This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor. The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe: 1. the beginning of ownership 2. the end of ownership 3. the transfer of ownership 4. the acquisition from an unknown source 5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these. Examples: - the collection of a hammer-head shark of the genus Sphyrna (Carchariniformes) XXXtbc by John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts at Puerto Escondido in the Gulf of Mexico on March 25th, 1940 - the acquisition of El Greco's "The Apostles Peter and Paul" by the State Hermitage in Saint Petersburg - the loss of my stuffed chaffinch 'Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758' due to insect damage last year In First Order Logic: E8(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P24 transferred title ofop min 1
is in domain of
P22 transferred title toop, P23 transferred title fromop, P24 transferred title ofop
is in range of
P22 acquired title throughop, P23 surrendered title throughop, P24 changed ownership throughop

E80 Part Removalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E80_Part_Removal

Scope note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E18 Physical Thing being decreased by the removal of a part. Typical scenarios include the detachment of an accessory, the removal of a component or part of a composite object, or the deaccessioning of an object from a curated E78 Collection. If the E80 Part Removal results in the total decomposition of the original object into pieces, such that the whole ceases to exist, the activity should instead be modelled as an E81 Transformation, i.e. a simultaneous destruction and production. In cases where the part removed has no discernible identity prior to its removal but does have an identity subsequent to its removal, the activity should be regarded as both E80 Part Removal and E12 Production. This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history, and continuity of identity over time, of objects that are removed from other objects, such as precious gemstones being extracted from different items of jewelry, or cultural artifacts being deaccessioned from different museum collections over their lifespan. Examples: - the removal of the engine from my car - the disposal of object number 1976:234 from the collection In First Order Logic: E80(x) ⊃ E11(x)
has super-classes
E11 Modificationc
P113 removedop some E18 Physical Thingc
P112 diminishedop some E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is in domain of
P112 diminishedop, P113 removedop
is in range of
P112 was diminished byop, P113 was removed byop

E81 Transformationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E81_Transformation

Scope note: This class comprises the events that result in the simultaneous destruction of one or more than one E77 Persistent Item and the creation of one or more than one E77 Persistent Item that preserves recognizable substance from the first one(s) but has fundamentally different nature and identity. Although the old and the new instances of E77 Persistent Item are treated as discrete entities having separate, unique identities, they are causally connected through the E81 Transformation; the destruction of the old E77 Persistent Item(s) directly causes the creation of the new one(s) using or preserving some relevant substance. Instances of E81 Transformation are therefore distinct from re-classifications (documented using E17 Type Assignment) or modifications (documented using E11 Modification) of objects that do not fundamentally change their nature or identity. Characteristic cases are reconstructions and repurposing of historical buildings or ruins, fires leaving buildings in ruins, taxidermy of specimen in natural history and the reorganization of a corporate body into a new one. Examples: - the death and mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (transformation of Tut-Ankh-Amun from a living person to a mummy) (E69,E81,E7) In First Order Logic: E81(x) ⊃ E63(x) E81(x) ⊃ E64(x)
has super-classes
E63 Beginning of Existencec
E64 End of Existencec
P123 resulted inop some E77 Persistent Itemc
P124 transformedop some E77 Persistent Itemc
is in domain of
P123 resulted inop, P124 transformedop
is in range of
P123 resulted fromop, P124 was transformed byop

E82 Actor Appellationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E82_Actor_Appellation

Scope note: This class comprises any sort of name, number, code or symbol characteristically used to identify an E39 Actor. An E39 Actor will typically have more than one E82 Actor Appellation, and instances of E82 Actor Appellation in turn may have alternative representations. The distinction between corporate and personal names, which is particularly important in library applications, should be made by explicitly linking the E82 Actor Appellation to an instance of either E21 Person or E74 Group/E40 Legal Body. If this is not possible, the distinction can be made through the use of the P2 has type mechanism. Examples: - "John Doe" - "Doe, J" - "the U.S. Social Security Number 246-14-2304" - "the Artist Formerly Known as Prince" - "the Master of the Flemish Madonna" - "Raphael's Workshop" - "the Brontë Sisters" - "ICOM" - "International Council of Museums" In First Order Logic: E82(x) ⊃ E41(x)
has super-classes
E41 Appellationc
is in domain of
P131 identifiesop
is in range of
P131 is identified byop

E83 Type Creationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E83_Type_Creation

Scope note: This class comprises activities formally defining new types of items. It is typically a rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a type is exhaustively described and appropriately named. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. The activity of E83 Type Creation is central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a "taxon," the type description as a "protologue," and the exemplary specimens as "orgininal element" or "holotype". Examples: - creation of the taxon 'Penicillium brefeldianum B. O. Dodge' (1933) - addition of class E84 Information Carrier to the CIDOC CRM In First Order Logic: E83(x) ⊃ E65(x)
has super-classes
E65 Creationc
P135 created typeop some E55 Typec
is in domain of
P135 created typeop, P136 was based onop
is in range of
P135 was created byop, P136 supported type creationop

E84 Information Carrierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E84_Information_Carrier

Scope note: This class comprises all instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are explicitly designed to act as persistent physical carriers for instances of E73 Information Object. An E84 Information Carrier may or may not contain information, e.g., a diskette. Note that any E18 Physical Thing may carry information, such as an E34 Inscription. However, unless it was specifically designed for this purpose, it is not an Information Carrier. Therefore the property P128 carries (is carried by) applies to E18 Physical Thing in general. Examples: - the Rosetta Stone - my paperback copy of Crime & Punishment - the computer disk at ICS-FORTH that stores the canonical Definition of the CIDOC CRM In First Order Logic: E84(x) ⊃ E22(x)
has super-classes
E22 Man-Made Objectc

E85 Joiningc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E85_Joining

Scope note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party. Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, marriage, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position. Examples: - The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689 - The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 - The implementation of the membership treaty between EU and Denmark January 1. 1973 In First Order Logic: E85(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P143 joinedop exactly 1
P144 joined withop min 1
is in domain of
P143 joinedop, P144 joined withop
is in range of
P143 was joined byop, P144 gained member byop

E86 Leavingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E86_Leaving

Scope note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor to be disassociated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party. It may be the initiative of a third party. Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, divorce, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position. Examples: - The end of Sir Isaac Newton's duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 - George Washington's leaving office in 1797 - The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland’s membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland February 1. 1985 In First Order Logic: E86(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P146 separated fromop min 1
P145 separatedop exactly 1
is in domain of
P145 separatedop, P146 separated fromop
is in range of
P145 left byop, P146 lost member byop

E87 Curation Activityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E87_Curation_Activity

Scope note: This class comprises the activities that result in the continuity of management and the preservation and evolution of instances of E78 Collection, following an implicit or explicit curation plan. It specializes the notion of activity into the curation of a collection and allows the history of curation to be recorded. Items are accumulated and organized following criteria like subject, chronological period, material type, style of art etc. and can be added or removed from an E78 Collection for a specific purpose and/or audience. The initial aggregation of items of a collection is regarded as an instance of E12 Production Event while the activity of evolving, preserving and promoting a collection is regarded as an instance of E87 Curation Activity. Examples: - the curation of Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium 1876 – 1909 (when Foslie died), now at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Norway In First Order Logic: E87(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P147 curatedop some E78 Collectionc
is in domain of
P147 curatedop
is in range of
P147 was curated byop

E89 Propositional Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E89_Propositional_Object

Scope note: This class comprises immaterial items, including but not limited to stories, plots, procedural prescriptions, algorithms, laws of physics or images that are, or represent in some sense, sets of propositions about real or imaginary things and that are documented as single units or serve as topic of discourse. This class also comprises items that are "about" something in the sense of a subject. In the wider sense, this class includes expressions of psychological value such as non-figural art and musical themes. However, conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E89 Propositional Object. This should not be confused with the definition of a type, which is indeed an instance of E89 Propositional Object. Examples: - Maxwell's Equations - The ideational contents of Aristotle's book entitled 'Metaphysics' as rendered in the Greek texts translated in … Oxford edition… - The underlying prototype of any "no-smoking" sign (E36) - The common ideas of the plots of the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa and the movie "The Magnificent Seven" by John Sturges - The image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta published by UPI, 1945 (E38) In First Order Logic: E89(x) ⊃ E28(x)
has super-classes
E28 Conceptual Objectc
P148 has componentop some E89 Propositional Objectc
P67 is referred to byop some E1 CRM Entityc
P129 is subject ofop some E1 CRM Entityc
has sub-classes
E30 Rightc, E73 Information Objectc
is in domain of
P129 is aboutop, P148 has componentop, P148 is component ofop, P67 refers toop
is in range of
P129 is subject ofop, P148 has componentop, P148 is component ofop, P67 is referred to byop

E9 Movec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E9_Move

Scope note: This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object. Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event. Examples: - the relocation of London Bridge from the UK to the USA - the movement of the exhibition "Treasures of Tut-Ankh-Amun" 1976-1979 In First Order Logic: E9(x) ⊃ E7(x)
has super-classes
E7 Activityc
P25 movedop some E19 Physical Objectc
P27 moved fromop some E53 Placec
P26 moved toop some E53 Placec
is in domain of
P25 movedop, P26 moved toop, P27 moved fromop
is in range of
P25 moved byop, P26 was destination ofop, P27 was origin ofop

E90 Symbolic Objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E90_Symbolic_Object

Scope note: This class comprises identifiable symbols and any aggregation of symbols, such as characters, identifiers, traffic signs, emblems, texts, data sets, images, musical scores, multimedia objects, computer program code or mathematical formulae that have an objectively recognizable structure and that are documented as single units. It includes sets of signs of any nature, which may serve to designate something, or to communicate some propositional content. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object may or may not have a specific meaning, for example an arbitrary character string. In some cases, the content of an instance of E90 Symbolic Object may completely be represented by a serialized digital content model, such as a sequence of ASCII-encoded characters, an XML or HTML document, or a TIFF image. The property P3 has note allows for the description of this content model. In order to disambiguate which symbolic level is the carrier of the meaning, the property P3.1 has type can be used to specify the encoding (e.g. "bit", "Latin character", RGB pixel). Examples: - 'ecognizabl' - The "no-smoking" sign (E36) - "BM000038850.JPG" (E75) - image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London (E38) - The distribution of form, tone and colour found on Leonardo da Vinci's painting named "Mona Lisa" in daylight (E38) - The Italian text of Dante's "Divina Commedia" as found in the authoritative critical edition La Commedia secondo l'antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4) (E33) In First Order Logic: E90(x) ⊃ E28(x) E90(x) ⊃ E72(x)
has super-classes
E28 Conceptual Objectc
E72 Legal Objectc
P106 is composed ofop some E90 Symbolic Objectc
has sub-classes
E41 Appellationc, E73 Information Objectc
is in domain of
P106 forms part ofop, P106 is composed ofop, P128 is carried byop, P142 was used inop
is in range of
P106 forms part ofop, P106 is composed ofop, P128 carriesop, P142 used constituentop, p165 incorporatesop

E92 Spacetime Volumec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E92_Spacetime_Volume

Scope note: This class comprises 4 dimensional point sets (volumes) in physical spacetime regardless its true geometric form. They may derive their identity from being the extent of a material phenomenon or from being the interpretation of an expression defining an extent in spacetime. Intersections of instances of E92 Spacetime Volume, Place and Timespan are also regarded as instances of E92 Spacetime Volume. An instance of E92 Spacetime Volume is either contiguous or composed of a finite number of contiguous subsets. Its boundaries may be fuzzy due to the properties of the phenomena it derives from or due to the limited precision up to which defining expression can be identified with a real extent in spacetime. The duration of existence of an instance of a spacetime volume is trivially its projection on time. Examples: - the spacetime Volume of the Event of Ceasars murder  - the spacetime Volume where and when the carbon 14 dating of the "Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996  took place  - the spatio‐temporal trajectory of the H.M.S. Victory from its building to its actual location - the spacetime volume defined by a polygon approximating the Danube river flood in Austria between 6th and 9th of August 2002 In First Order Logic: E92(x) ⊃ E1(x)
has super-classes
E1 CRM Entityc
has sub-classes
E18 Physical Thingc, E4 Periodc, E93 Spacetime Snapshotc
is in domain of
P10 containsop, P10 falls withinop, P132 overlaps withop, P133 is separated fromop, P160 has temporal projectionop, P161 has spatial projectionop, p166i had presenceop
is in range of
P10 containsop, P10 falls withinop, P132 overlaps withop, P133 is separated fromop, p166 was a presence ofop

E93 Spacetime Snapshotc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E93_Presence

Scope note: This class comprises instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that result from intersection of instances of E92 Spacetime Volume with an instance of E52 Time-Span. The identity of an instance of this class is determined by the identities of the constituing spacetime volume and the time-span. This class can be used to define temporal snapshots at a particular time-span, such as the extent of the Roman Empire at 33 B.C., or the extent occupied by a museum object at rest in an exhibit. In particular, it can be used to define the spatial projection of a spacetime volume during a particular time-span, such as the maximal spatial extent of a flood at some particular hour, or all areas covered by the Poland within the 20th century AD. In First Order Logic: E93(x) ⊃ E92(x)
has super-classes
E92 Spacetime Volumec
is in domain of
P164 is restricted byop, p166 was a presence ofop, p167 atop
is in range of
p164i was time span ofop, p166i had presenceop, p167i was place ofop

Object Properties

P1 identifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1i_identifies

P1 is identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P1_is_identified_by

Scope note: This property describes the naming or identification of any real world item by a name or any other identifier. This property is intended for identifiers in general use, which form part of the world the model intends to describe, and not merely for internal database identifiers which are specific to a technical system, unless these latter also have a more general use outside the technical context. This property includes in particular identification by mathematical expressions such as coordinate systems used for the identification of instances of E53 Place. The property does not reveal anything about when, where and by whom this identifier was used. A more detailed representation can be made using the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path through E15 Identifier Assignment. Examples: - the capital of Italy (E53) is identified by "Rome" (E48) - text 25014-32 (E33) is identified by "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" (E35) In First Order Logic: P1(x,y) ⊃ E1(x) P1(x,y) ⊃ E41(y)

P10 containsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P10i_contains

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
P9 consists ofop
has domain
E92 Spacetime Volumec
has range
E92 Spacetime Volumec
is inverse of
P10 falls withinop

P10 falls withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P10_falls_within

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E4 Period with another instance of E4 Period that falls within the spacetime volumes occupied by the latter.In other words, all points in the former are also points in the latter. This property is transitive. Examples: - the Great Plague (E4) falls within The Gothic period (E4) In First Order Logic: P10(x,y) ⊃ E92(x) P10(x,y) ⊃ E92(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E92 Spacetime Volumec
has range
E92 Spacetime Volumec
is inverse of
P10 containsop

P100 died inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P100i_died_in

has super-properties
P93 was taken out of existence byop
has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E69 Deathc
is inverse of
P100 was death ofop

P100 was death ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P100_was_death_of

Scope note: This property links an E69 Death event to the E21 Person that died. A Death event may involve multiple people, for example in the case of a battle or disaster. This is not intended for use with general Natural History material, only people. Examples: - Mozart's death (E69) was death of Mozart (E21)
has super-properties
P93 took out of existenceop
has domain
E69 Deathc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P100 died inop

P101 had as general useop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P101_had_as_general_use

Scope note: This property links an instance of E70 Thing to an E55 Type of usage. It allows the relationship between particular things, both physical and immaterial, and general methods and techniques of use to be documented. Thus it can be asserted that a baseball bat had a general use for sport and a specific use for threatening people during the Great Train Robbery. Examples: - Tony Gill's Ford Mustang (E22) had as general use transportation (E55) In First Order Logic: P102(x,y) ⊃ E71(x) P102(x,y) ⊃ E35(y) P102(x,y,z) ⊃ [P102(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P102(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)
has domain
E70 Thingc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P101 was use ofop

P101 was use ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P101i_was_use_of

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E70 Thingc
is inverse of
P101 had as general useop

P102 has titleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102_has_title

Scope note: This property describes the E35 Title applied to an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing. The E55 Type of Title is assigned in a sub property. The P102.1 has type property of the P102 has title (is title of) property enables the relationship between the Title and the thing to be further clarified, for example, if the Title was a given Title, a supplied Title etc. It allows any man-made material or immaterial thing to be given a Title. It is possible to imagine a Title being created without a specific object in mind. Examples: - the first book of the Old Testament (E33) has title "Genesis" (E35) has type translated (E55) In First Order Logic: P102(x,y) ⊃ E71(x) P102(x,y) ⊃ E35(y) P102(x,y,z) ⊃ [P102(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P102(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y) Properties: P102.1 has type: E55 Type
has super-properties
P1 is identified byop
has domain
E71 Man-Made Thingc
has range
E35 Titlec
is inverse of
P102 is title ofop

P102 is title ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P102i_is_title_of

has super-properties
P1 identifiesop
has domain
E35 Titlec
has range
E71 Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P102 has titleop

P103 was intended forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P103_was_intended_for

Scope note: This property links an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing to an E55 Type of usage. It creates a property between specific man-made things, both physical and immaterial, to Types of intended methods and techniques of use. Note: A link between specific man-made things and a specific use activity should be expressed using P19 was intended use of (was made for). Examples: - this plate (E22) was intended for being destroyed at wedding reception (E55) In First Order Logic: P103(x,y) ⊃ E71(x) P103(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
has domain
E71 Man-Made Thingc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P103 was intention ofop

P103 was intention ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P103i_was_intention_of

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E71 Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P103 was intended forop

P104 applies toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P104i_applies_to

has domain
E30 Rightc
has range
E72 Legal Objectc
is inverse of
P104 is subject toop

P104 is subject toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P104_is_subject_to

Scope note: This property links a particular E72 Legal Object to the instances of E30 Right to which it is subject. The Right is held by an E39 Actor as described by P75 possesses (is possessed by). Examples: - Beatles back catalogue (E72) is subject to reproduction right on Beatles back catalogue (E30) In First Order Logic: P104(x,y) ⊃ E72(x) P104(x,y) ⊃ E30(y)
has domain
E72 Legal Objectc
has range
E30 Rightc
is inverse of
P104 applies toop

P105 has right onop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P105i_has_right_on

has sub-properties
P52 is current owner ofop
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E72 Legal Objectc
is inverse of
P105 right held byop

P105 right held byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P105_right_held_by

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor who holds the instances of E30 Right to an E72 Legal Object. It is a superproperty of P52 has current owner (is current owner of) because ownership is a right that is held on the owned object. P105 right held by (has right on) is a shortcut of the fully developed path from E72 Legal Object through P104 is subject to (applies to), E30 Right, P75 possesses (is possessed by) to E39 Actor. Examples: - Beatles back catalogue (E73) right held by Michael Jackson (E21) In First Order Logic: P105(x,y) ⊃ E72(x) P105(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)
has sub-properties
P52 has current ownerop
has domain
E72 Legal Objectc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P105 has right onop

P106 forms part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P106i_forms_part_of

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
p165i is incorporated inop
has domain
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has range
E90 Symbolic Objectc
is inverse of
P106 is composed ofop

P106 is composed ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P106_is_composed_of

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E90 Symbolic Object with a part of it that is by itself an instance of E90 Symbolic Object, such as fragments of texts or clippings from an image. This property is transitive. Examples: - This Scope note P106 (E33) is composed of fragments of texts (E33) - 'recognizable' P106 (E90) is composed of 'ecognizabl' (E90) In First Order Logic: P106(x,y) ⊃ E90(x) P106(x,y) ⊃ E90(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
p165 incorporatesop
has domain
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has range
E90 Symbolic Objectc
is inverse of
P106 forms part ofop

P107 has current or former memberop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P107_has_current_or_former_member

Scope note: This property relates an E39 Actor to the E74 Group of which that E39 Actor is a member. Groups, Legal Bodies and Persons, may all be members of Groups. A Group necessarily consists of more than one member. This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor The property P107.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group. Examples: - Moholy Nagy (E21) is current or former member of Bauhaus (E74) - National Museum of Science and Industry (E40) has current or former member The National Railway Museum (E40) - The married couple Queen Elisabeth and Prince Phillip (E74) has current or former member Prince Phillip (E21) with P107.1 kind of member husband (E55 Type) In First Order Logic: P107(x,y) ⊃ E74(x) P107(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P107(x,y,z) ⊃ [P107(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] Properties: P107.1 kind of member: E55 Type
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P107 is current or former member ofop

P107 is current or former member ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P107i_is_current_or_former_member_of

has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P107 has current or former memberop

P108 has producedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P108_has_produced

Scope note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that came into existence as a result of an E12 Production. The identity of an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing is not defined by its matter, but by its existence as a subject of documentation. An E12 Production can result in the creation of multiple instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. Examples: - The building of Rome (E12) has produced Τhe Colosseum (E22) In First Order Logic: P108(x,y) ⊃ E12(x) P108(x,y) ⊃ E24(y) P108(x,y) ⊃ P31(x,y) P108(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)

P108 was produced byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P108i_was_produced_by

P109 has current or former curatorop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P109_has_current_or_former_curator

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who assume or have assumed overall curatorial responsibility for an E78 Collection. It does not allow a history of curation to be recorded. This would require use of an Event initiating a curator being responsible for a Collection. Examples: - the Robert Opie Collection (E78) has current or former curator Robert Opie (E39) - the Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium (E78) has current or former curator Mikael Heggelund Foslie In First Order Logic: P109(x,y) ⊃ E78(x) P109(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P109(x,y) ⊃ P49(x,y)

P109 is current or former curator ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P109i_is_current_or_former_curator_of

P11 had participantop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11_had_participant

Scope note: This property describes the active or passive participation of instances of E39 Actors in an E5 Event. It connects the life-line of the related E39 Actor with the E53 Place and E50 Date of the event. The property implies that the Actor was involved in the event but does not imply any causal relationship. The subject of a portrait can be said to have participated in the creation of the portrait. Examples: - Napoleon (E21) participated in The Battle of Waterloo (E7) - Maria (E21) participated in Photographing of Maria (E7) In First Order Logic: P11(x,y) ⊃ E5(x) P11(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P11(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)

P11 participated inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P11i_participated_in

P110 augmentedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P110_augmented

Scope note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that is added to (augmented) in an E79 Part Addition. Although a Part Addition event normally concerns only one item of Physical Man-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be added to (augmented). For example, the artist Jackson Pollock trailing paint onto multiple canvasses. Examples: - the final nail-insertion Event (E79) augmented Coffin of George VI (E24) In First Order Logic: P110(x,y) ⊃ E79(x) P110(x,y) ⊃ E24(y) P110(x,y) ⊃ P31(x,y)
has super-properties
P31 has modifiedop
has domain
E79 Part Additionc
has range
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P110 was augmented byop

P110 was augmented byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P110i_was_augmented_by

has super-properties
P31 was modified byop
has domain
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
has range
E79 Part Additionc
is inverse of
P110 augmentedop

P111 addedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P111_added

Scope note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that is added during an E79 Part Addition activity Examples: - the insertion of the final nail (E79) added the last nail in George VI's coffin (E18) In First Order Logic: P111(x,y) ⊃ E79(x) P111(x,y) ⊃ E18(y) P111(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y) P111(x,y) ⊃ P16(x,y)
has super-properties
P16 used specific objectop
has domain
E79 Part Additionc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P111 was added byop

P111 was added byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P111i_was_added_by

has super-properties
P16 was used forop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E79 Part Additionc
is inverse of
P111 addedop

P112 diminishedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112_diminished

Scope note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that was diminished by E80 Part Removal. Although a Part removal activity normally concerns only one item of Physical Man-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be diminished by a single Part Removal activity. Examples: - the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22) was diminished by The opening of the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E80) In First Order Logic: P112(x,y) ⊃ E80(x) P112(x,y) ⊃ E24(y) P112(x,y) ⊃ P31(x,y)
has super-properties
P31 has modifiedop
has domain
E80 Part Removalc
has range
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P112 was diminished byop

P112 was diminished byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P112i_was_diminished_by

has super-properties
P31 was modified byop
has domain
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
has range
E80 Part Removalc
is inverse of
P112 diminishedop

P113 removedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P113_removed

Scope note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that is removed during an E80 Part Removal activity. Examples: - the opening of the coffin of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E80) removed The mummy of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E20,E22) In First Order Logic: P113(x,y) ⊃ E80(x) P113(x,y) ⊃ E18(y) P113(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)
has super-properties
P12 occurred in the presence ofop
has domain
E80 Part Removalc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P113 was removed byop

P113 was removed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P113i_was_removed_by

has super-properties
P12 was present atop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E80 Part Removalc
is inverse of
P113 removedop

P114 is equal in time toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P114_is_equal_in_time_to

Scope note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E2 Temporal Entity with the same E52 Time-Span to be equated. This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the equivalence can be calculated). This property is the same as the "equal" relationship of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). This property is transitive. Examples: - the destruction of the Villa Justinian Tempus (E6) is equal in time to the death of Maximus Venderus (E69) In First Order Logic: P114(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P114(x,y) ⊃ E2(y) P114(x,y) ⊃ P114(y,x)

has characteristics: symmetric, transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P114 is equal in time toop, P114 is equal in time toop

P115 finishesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P115_finishes

Scope note: This property allows the ending point for a E2 Temporal Entity to be situated by reference to the ending point of another temporal entity of longer duration. This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "finishes / finished-by" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). This property is transitive. Examples: - Late Bronze Age (E4) finishes Bronze Age (E4) In First Order Logic: P115(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P115(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P115 is finished byop

P115 is finished byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P115i_is_finished_by

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P115 finishesop

P116 is started byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P116i_is_started_by

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P116 startsop

P116 startsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P116_starts

Scope note: This property allows the starting point for a E2 Temporal Entity to be situated by reference to the starting point of another temporal entity of longer duration. This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "starts / started-by" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). Examples: - Early Bronze Age (E4) starts Bronze Age (E4) In First Order Logic: P116(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P116(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P116 is started byop

P117 includesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P117i_includes

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P117 occurs duringop

P117 occurs duringop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P117_occurs_during

Scope note: This property allows the entire E52 Time-Span of an E2 Temporal Entity to be situated within the Time-Span of another temporal entity that starts before and ends after the included temporal entity. This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "during / includes" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). Examples: - Middle Saxon period (E4) occurs during Saxon period (E4) In First Order Logic: P117(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P117(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P117 includesop

P118 is overlapped in time byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P118i_is_overlapped_in_time_by

P118 overlaps in time withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P118_overlaps_in_time_with

Scope note: This property identifies an overlap between the instances of E52 Time-Span of two instances of E2 Temporal Entity. It implies a temporal order between the two entities: if A overlaps in time B, then A must start before B, and B must end after A. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "overlaps / overlapped-by" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). Examples: - the Iron Age (E4) overlaps in time with the Roman period (E4) In First Order Logic: P118(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P118(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

P119 is met in time byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P119i_is_met_in_time_by

P119 meets in time withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P119_meets_in_time_with

Scope note: This property indicates that one E2 Temporal Entity immediately follows another. It implies a particular order between the two entities: if A meets in time with B, then A must precede B. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "meets / met-by" relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). Examples: - Early Saxon Period (E4) meets in time with Middle Saxon Period (E4) In First Order Logic: P119(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P119(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

P12 occurred in the presence ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12_occurred_in_the_presence_of

Scope note: This property describes the active or passive presence of an E77 Persistent Item in an E5 Event without implying any specific role. It connects the history of a thing with the E53 Place and E50 Date of an event. For example, an object may be the desk, now in a museum on which a treaty was signed. The presence of an immaterial thing implies the presence of at least one of its carriers. Examples: - Deckchair 42 (E19) was present at The sinking of the Titanic (E5) In First Order Logic: P12(x,y) ⊃ E5(x) P12(x,y) ⊃ E77(y)

P12 was present atop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P12i_was_present_at

P120 occurs afterop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P120i_occurs_after

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P120 occurs beforeop

P120 occurs beforeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P120_occurs_before

Scope note: This property identifies the relative chronological sequence of two temporal entities. It implies that a temporal gap exists between the end of A and the start of B. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "before / after" relationships of Allen’s temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843). Examples: - Early Bronze Age (E4) occurs before Late Bronze age (E4) In First Order Logic: P120(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P120(x,y) ⊃ E2(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P120 occurs afterop

P121 overlaps withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P121_overlaps_with

Scope note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E53 Place with overlapping geometric extents to be associated with each other. It does not specify anything about the shared area. This property is purely spatial, in contrast to Allen operators, which are purely temporal. Examples: - the territory of the United States (E53) overlaps with the Arctic (E53) In First Order Logic: P121(x,y) ⊃ E53(x) P121(x,y) ⊃ E53(y) P121(x,y) ⊃ P121(y,x)

has characteristics: symmetric

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P121 overlaps withop, P121 overlaps withop

P122 borders withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P122_borders_with

Scope note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E53 Place which share common borders to be related as such. This property is purely spatial, in contrast to Allen operators, which are purely temporal. Examples: - Scotland (E53) borders with England (E53) In First Order Logic: P122(x,y) ⊃ E53(x) P122(x,y) ⊃ E53(y) P122(x,y) ⊃ P122(y,x)

has characteristics: symmetric

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P122 borders withop, P122 borders withop

P123 resulted fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P123i_resulted_from

has super-properties
P92 was brought into existence byop
has domain
E77 Persistent Itemc
has range
E81 Transformationc
is inverse of
P123 resulted inop

P123 resulted inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P123_resulted_in

Scope note: This property identifies the E77 Persistent Item or items that are the result of an E81 Transformation. New items replace the transformed item or items, which cease to exist as units of documentation. The physical continuity between the old and the new is expressed by the link to the common Transformation. Examples: - the transformation of the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion into a city hall (E81) resulted in the City Hall of Heraklion (E22) - the death and mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81) resulted in the Mummy of Tut Tut-Ankh-Amun (E22 and E20) In First Order Logic: P123(x,y) ⊃ E81(x) P123(x,y) ⊃ E77(y) P123(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)
has super-properties
P92 brought into existenceop
has domain
E81 Transformationc
has range
E77 Persistent Itemc
is inverse of
P123 resulted fromop

P124 transformedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P124_transformed

Scope note: This property identifies the E77 Persistent Item or items that cease to exist due to a E81 Transformation. It is replaced by the result of the Transformation, which becomes a new unit of documentation. The continuity between both items, the new and the old, is expressed by the link to the common Transformation. Examples: - the transformation of the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion into a city hall (E81) transformed the Venetian Loggia in Heraklion (E22) - the death and mummification of Tut-Ankh-Amun (E81) transformed the ruling Pharao Tut-Ankh-Amun (E21) In First Order Logic: P124(x,y) ⊃ E81(x) P124(x,y) ⊃ E77(y) P124(x,y) ⊃ P93(x,y)
has super-properties
P93 took out of existenceop
has domain
E81 Transformationc
has range
E77 Persistent Itemc
is inverse of
P124 was transformed byop

P124 was transformed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P124i_was_transformed_by

has super-properties
P93 was taken out of existence byop
has domain
E77 Persistent Itemc
has range
E81 Transformationc
is inverse of
P124 transformedop

P125 used object of typeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P125_used_object_of_type

Scope note: This property defines the kind of objects used in an E7 Activity, when the specific instance is either unknown or not of interest, such as use of "a hammer". Examples: - at the Battle of Agincourt (E7), the English archers used object of type long bow (E55) In First Order Logic: P125(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P125(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
has sub-properties
P32 used general techniqueop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P125 was type of object used inop

P125 was type of object used inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P125i_was_type_of_object_used_in

has sub-properties
P32 was technique ofop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P125 used object of typeop

P126 employedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P126_employed

Scope note: This property identifies E57 Material employed in an E11 Modification. The E57 Material used during the E11 Modification does not necessarily become incorporated into the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that forms the subject of the E11 Modification. Examples: - the repairing of the Queen Mary (E11) employed Steel (E57) - distilled water (E57) was employed in the restoration of the Sistine Chapel (E11) In First Order Logic: P126(x,y) ⊃ E11(x) P126(x,y) ⊃ E57(y)
has domain
E11 Modificationc
has range
E57 Materialc
is inverse of
P126 was employed inop

P126 was employed inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P126i_was_employed_in

has domain
E57 Materialc
has range
E11 Modificationc
is inverse of
P126 employedop

P127 has broader termop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P127_has_broader_term

Scope note: This property identifies a super-Type to which an E55 Type is related. It allows Types to be organised into hierarchies. This is the sense of "broader term generic (BTG)" as defined in ISO 2788 Examples: - dime (E55) has broader term coin (E55) In First Order Logic: P127(x,y) ⊃ E55(x) P127(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P127 has narrower termop

P127 has narrower termop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P127i_has_narrower_term

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P127 has broader termop

P128 carriesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P128_carries

Scope note: This property identifies an E90 Symbolic Object carried by an instance of E18 Physical Thing. Examples: - Matthew's paperback copy of Reach for the Sky (E84) carries the text of Reach for the Sky (E73) In First Order Logic: P128(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P128(x,y) ⊃ E90(y) P128(x,y) ⊃ P130(x,y)
has super-properties
P130 shows features ofop
has sub-properties
P65 shows visual itemop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E90 Symbolic Objectc
is inverse of
P128 is carried byop

P128 is carried byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P128i_is_carried_by

has super-properties
P130 features are also found onop
has sub-properties
P65 is shown byop
has domain
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has range
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P128 carriesop

P129 is aboutop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P129_is_about

Scope note: This property documents that an E89 Propositional Object has as subject an instance of E1 CRM Entity. This differs from P67 refers to (is referred to by), which refers to an E1 CRM Entity, in that it describes the primary subject or subjects of an E89 Propositional Object. Examples: - The text entitled 'Reach for the sky' (E33) is about Douglas Bader (E21) In First Order Logic: P129(x,y) ⊃ E89(x) P129(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P129(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)
has super-properties
P67 refers toop
has domain
E89 Propositional Objectc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P129 is subject ofop

P129 is subject ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P129i_is_subject_of

has super-properties
P67 is referred to byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E89 Propositional Objectc
is inverse of
P129 is aboutop

P13 destroyedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P13_destroyed

Scope note: This property allows specific instances of E18 Physical Thing that have been destroyed to be related to a destruction event. Destruction implies the end of an item's life as a subject of cultural documentation – the physical matter of which the item was composed may in fact continue to exist. A destruction event may be contiguous with a Production that brings into existence a derived object composed partly of matter from the destroyed object. Examples: - the Tay Bridge Desaster (E6) destroyed The Tay Bridge (E22) In First Order Logic: P13 (x,y) ⊃ E6 (x) P13 (x,y) ⊃ E18(y) P13 (x,y) ⊃ P93(x,y)
has super-properties
P93 took out of existenceop
has domain
E6 Destructionc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P13 was destroyed byop

P13 was destroyed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P13i_was_destroyed_by

has super-properties
P93 was taken out of existence byop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E6 Destructionc
is inverse of
P13 destroyedop

P130 features are also found onop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P130i_features_are_also_found_on

has sub-properties
P128 is carried byop, P73 is translation ofop
has domain
E70 Thingc
has range
E70 Thingc
is inverse of
P130 shows features ofop

P130 shows features ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P130_shows_features_of

Scope note: This property generalises the notions of "copy of" and "similar to" into a directed relationship, where the domain expresses the derivative, if such a direction can be established. Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric. If the reason for similarity is a sort of derivation process, i.e., that the creator has used or had in mind the form of a particular thing during the creation or production, this process should be explicitly modelled. Moreover it expresses similarity in cases that can be stated between two objects only, without historical knowledge about its reasons. Examples: - the Parthenon Frieze on the Acropolis in Athens (E22) shows features of the Original Parthenon Frieze in the British museum (E22). Kind of similarity: Copy (E55) In First Order Logic: P130 (x,y) ⊃ E70(x) P130 (x,y) ⊃ E70(y) P130(x,y,z) ⊃ [P130(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P130(x,y) ⊃ P130(y,x) Properties: P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type
has sub-properties
P128 carriesop, P73 has translationop
has domain
E70 Thingc
has range
E70 Thingc
is inverse of
P130 features are also found onop

P131 identifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P131i_identifies

has super-properties
P1 identifiesop
has domain
E82 Actor Appellationc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P131 is identified byop

P131 is identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P131_is_identified_by

Scope note: This property identifies a name used specifically to identify an E39 Actor. This property is a specialisation of P1 is identified by (identifies) is identified by. Examples: - Tyler Withersopp IV (E39) is identified by "US social security number 619-17-4204" (E82) In First Order Logic: P131(x,y) ⊃ E39(x) P131(x,y) ⊃ E82(y) P131(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)
has super-properties
P1 is identified byop
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E82 Actor Appellationc
is inverse of
P131 identifiesop

P132 overlaps withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P132_overlaps_with

Scope note: This symmetric property associates two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that have some of their extent in common. Examples: - the "Urnfield" period (E4) overlaps with the "Hallstatt" period (E4) In First Order Logic: P132(x,y) ⊃ E92(x) P132(x,y) ⊃ E92(y) P132(x,y) ⊃ P132(y,x)

has characteristics: symmetric

has sub-properties
P46 is composed ofop
has domain
E92 Spacetime Volumec
has range
E92 Spacetime Volumec
is inverse of
P132 overlaps withop, P132 overlaps withop

P133 is separated fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P133_is_separated_from

Scope note: This symmetric property associates two instances of E92 Spacetime Volume that have no extent in common Examples: - the "Hallstatt" period (E4) is separated from the "La Tène" era (E4) In First Order Logic: P133(x,y) ⊃ E92(x) P133(x,y) ⊃ E92(y) P133(x,y) ⊃ P133(y,x)

has characteristics: symmetric

has domain
E92 Spacetime Volumec
has range
E92 Spacetime Volumec
is inverse of
P133 is separated fromop, P133 is separated fromop

P134 continuedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P134_continued

Scope note: This property associates two instances of E7 Activity, where the domain is considered as an intentional continuation of the range. A continuation of an activity may happen when the continued activity is still ongoing or after the continued activity has completely ended. The continuing activity may have started already before it decided to continue the other one. Continuation implies a coherence of intentions and outcomes of the involved activities. Examples: - the construction of the Kölner Dom (Cologne Cathedral) (E7), abandoned in the 15th century, was continued by construction in the 19th century adapting the initial plans so as to preserve the intended appearance (E7) In First Order Logic: P134(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P134(x,y)⊃ E7(y) P134(x,y) ⊃ P15(x,y)
has super-properties
P15 was influenced byop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P134 was continued byop

P134 was continued byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P134i_was_continued_by

has super-properties
P15 influencedop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P134 continuedop

P135 created typeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P135_created_type

Scope note: This property identifies the E55 Type, which is created in an E83Type Creation activity. Examples: - The description of a new ribbon worm species by Bürger (E83) created type 'Lineus coxinus (Bürger, 1892)' (E55) In First Order Logic: P135(x,y) ⊃ E83(x) P135(x,y) ⊃ E55(y) P135(x,y) ⊃ P94(x,y)
has super-properties
P94 has createdop
has domain
E83 Type Creationc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P135 was created byop

P135 was created byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P135i_was_created_by

has super-properties
P94 was created byop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E83 Type Creationc
is inverse of
P135 created typeop

P136 supported type creationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P136i_supported_type_creation

has super-properties
P15 influencedop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E83 Type Creationc
is inverse of
P136 was based onop

P136 was based onop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P136_was_based_on

Scope note: This property identifies one or more items that were used as evidence to declare a new E55 Type. The examination of these items is often the only objective way to understand the precise characteristics of a new Type. Such items should be deposited in a museum or similar institution for that reason. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of each item to the Type, such as "holotype" or "original element". Examples: - the taxon creation of the plant species 'Serratula glauca Linné, 1753.' (E83) was based on Object BM000576251 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) in the taxonomic role original element (E55) In First Order Logic: P136(x,y) ⊃ E83(x) P136(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P136(x,y,z) ⊃ [P136(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P136(x,y) ⊃ P15(x,y) Properties: P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type
has super-properties
P15 was influenced byop
has domain
E83 Type Creationc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P136 supported type creationop

P137 exemplifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P137_exemplifies

Scope note: This property allows an item to be declared as a particular example of an E55 Type or taxon The P137.1 in the taxonomic role property of P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) allows differentiation of taxonomic roles. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the Type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical", "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the Type Creation (E83) itself, but selected in a later phase. Examples: - Object BM000098044 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) exemplifies Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. (E55) in the taxonomic role lectotype In First Order Logic: P137(x,y) ⊃ E1(x) P137(x,y) ⊃ E55(y) P137(x,y,z) ⊃ [P137(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P137(x,y) ⊃ P2(x,y) Properties: P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type
has super-properties
P2 has typeop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P137 is exemplified byop

P137 is exemplified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P137i_is_exemplified_by

has super-properties
P2 is type ofop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P137 exemplifiesop

P138 has representationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P138i_has_representation

has super-properties
P67 is referred to byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E36 Visual Itemc
is inverse of
P138 representsop

P138 representsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P138_represents

Scope note: This property establishes the relationship between an E36 Visual Item and the entity that it visually represents. Any entity may be represented visually. This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity, which is shortcut by P62depicts (is depicted by). P138.1 mode of representation allows the nature of the representation to be refined. This property is also used for the relationship between an original and a digitisation of the original by the use of techniques such as digital photography, flatbed or infrared scanning. Digitisation is here seen as a process with a mechanical, causal component rendering the spatial distribution of structural and optical properties of the original and does not necessarily include any visual similarity identifiable by human observation." Properties: P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type Examples: - the digital file found at http://www.emunch.no/N/full/No-MM_N0001-01.jpg (E73) represents page 1 of Edward Munch's manuscript MM N 1, Munch-museet (E73) mode of representation Digitisation(E55) - The 3D model VAM_A.200-1946_trace_1M.ply (E73) represents Victoria & Albert Museum's Madonna and child sculpture (visual work) A.200-1946 (E22) mode of representation 3D surface (E55) In First Order Logic: P138(x,y) ⊃ E36(x) P138(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P138(x,y,z) ⊃ [P138(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P138(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)
has super-properties
P67 refers toop
has domain
E36 Visual Itemc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P138 has representationop

P139 has alternative formop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P139_has_alternative_form

Scope note: This property establishes a relationship of equivalence between two instances of E41 Appellation independent from any item identified by them. It is a dynamic asymmetric relationship, where the range expresses the derivative, if such a direction can be established. Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric. The relationship is not transitive. The equivalence applies to all cases of use of an instance of E41 Appellation. Multiple names assigned to an object, which are not equivalent for all things identified with a specific instance of E41 Appellation, should be modelled as repeated values of P1 is identified by (identifies). P139.1 has type allows the type of derivation, such as “transliteration from Latin 1 to ASCII” be refined.. Examples: - "Martin Doerr" (E41) has alternative form "Martin Dörr" (E41) has type Alternate spelling (E55) - "Гончарова, Наталья Сергеевна" (E41) has alternative form "Gončarova, Natal´â Sergeevna" (E41) has type ISO 9:1995 transliteration (E55) - "Αθήνα" has alternative form "Athina" has type transcription. In First Order Logic: P139(x,y) ⊃ E41(x) P139 (x,y) ⊃ E41(y) P139(x,y,z) ⊃ [P139(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P139(x,y) ⊃ P139(y,x) Properties: P139.1 has type: E55 Type
has domain
E41 Appellationc
has range
E41 Appellationc

P14 carried out byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P14_carried_out_by

Scope note: This property describes the active participation of an E39 Actor in an E7 Activity. It implies causal or legal responsibility. The P14.1 in the role of property of the property allows the nature of an Actor's participation to be specified. Examples: - the painting of the Sistine Chapel (E7) carried out by Michaelangelo Buonaroti (E21) in the role of master craftsman (E55) In First Order Logic: P14 (x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P14 (x,y)⊃ E39(y) P14 (x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y) P14(x,y,z) ⊃ [P14(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]

P14 performedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P14i_performed

P140 assigned attribute toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P140_assigned_attribute_to

Scope note: This property indicates the item to which an attribute or relation is assigned. Examples: - February 1997 Current Ownership Assessment of Martin Doerr's silver cup (E13) assigned attribute to Martin Doerr's silver cup (E19) - 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned attribute to silver cup 232 (E19) In First Order Logic: P140(x,y) ⊃ E13(x) P140(x,y) ⊃ E1(y)

P140 was attributed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P140i_was_attributed_by

P141 assignedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141_assigned

Scope note: This property indicates the attribute that was assigned or the item that was related to the item denoted by a property P140 assigned attribute to in an Attribute assignment action. Examples: - February 1997 Current Ownership Assessment of Martin Doerr's silver cup (E13) assigned Martin Doerr (E21) - 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned object identifier 232 In First Order Logic: P141(x,y) ⊃ E13(x) P141(x,y) ⊃ E1(y)

P141 was assigned byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P141i_was_assigned_by

P142 used constituentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P142_used_constituent

Scope note: This property associates the event of assigning an instance of E42 Identifier with the instances of E90 Symbolic Object that were used as constituents of the identifier. Examples: - On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name identifier “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E15) used constituent “ca. 1300-1377” (E49) - Assigning a uniform title to the anonymous textual work known as ‘The Adoration of the Shepherds’(E15) used constituent ‘Coventry’ (E48) - Assigning a uniform title to Pina Bausch’s choreographic work entitled ‘Rite of spring’ (E15) used constituent ‘(Choreographic Work: Bausch)’(E90) - Assigning a uniform title to the motion picture directed in 1933 by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack and entitled ‘King Kong’ (E15) used constituent ‘1933’ (E50) - Assigning the corporate name identifier ‘Univerza v Ljubljani. Oddelek za bibliotekarstvo’ to The Department for library science of the University of Ljubljana (E15) used constituent ‘Univerza v Ljubljani’ (E42) In First Order Logic: P142(x,y) ⊃ E15(x) P142(x,y) ⊃ E90(y) P142(x,y) ⊃ P16(x,y)
has super-properties
P16 used specific objectop
has domain
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
has range
E90 Symbolic Objectc
is inverse of
P142 was used inop

P142 was used inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P142i_was_used_in

has super-properties
P16 was used forop
has domain
E90 Symbolic Objectc
has range
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
is inverse of
P142 used constituentop

P143 joinedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P143_joined

Scope note: This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of a E74 Group in an E85 Joining. Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of). Examples: - The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (E85) joined Sir Isaac Newton (E21) - The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (E85) joined Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (E21) - The implementation of the membership treaty January 1. 1973 between EU and Denmark (E85) joined Denmark (E40) In First Order Logic: P143(x,y) ⊃ E85(x) P143(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P143(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E85 Joiningc
is inverse of
P143 was joined byop

P143 was joined byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P143i_was_joined_by

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E85 Joiningc
is inverse of
P143 joinedop

P144 gained member byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144i_gained_member_by

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E85 Joiningc
is inverse of
P144 joined withop

P144 joined withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P144_joined_with

Scope note: This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining. Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well. Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of). The property P144.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group. Examples: - The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 (E85) joined with the Convention Parliament (E40) - The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 (E85) joined with the office of Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (E40) with P144.1 kind of member President (E55) - The implementation of the membership treaty January 1. 1973 between EU and Denmark (E85) joined with EU (E40) In First Order Logic: P144(x,y) ⊃ E85(x) P144(x,y)⊃ E74(y) P144(x,y,z) ⊃ [P144(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P144(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y) Properties: P144.1 kind of member: E55 Type
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E85 Joiningc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P144 gained member byop

P145 left byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P145i_left_by

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E86 Leavingc
is inverse of
P145 separatedop

P145 separatedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P145_separated

Scope note: This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that leaves an instance of E74 Group through an instance of E86 Leaving. Examples: - The end of Sir Isaac Newton's duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 separated Sir Isaac Newton - George Washington's leaving office in 1797 separated George Washington - The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland February 1. 1985 (E86) separated Greenland (E40) In First Order Logic: P145(x,y) ⊃ E86(x) P145(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P145(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E86 Leavingc
is inverse of
P145 left byop

P146 lost member byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P146i_lost_member_by

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E86 Leavingc
is inverse of
P146 separated fromop

P146 separated fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P146_separated_from

Scope note: This property identifies the instance of E74 Group an instance of E39 Actor leaves through an instance of E86 Leaving. Although a Leaving activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which leaving one E74 Group implies leaving another E74 Group as well. Examples: - The end of Sir Isaac Newton's duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 separated from the Convention Parliament - George Washington's leaving office in 1797 separated from the office of President of the United States - The implementation of the treaty regulating the termination of Greenland membership in EU between EU, Denmark and Greenland February 1. 1985 separated from EU (E40) In First Order Logic: P146(x,y) ⊃ E86(x) P146(x,y) ⊃ E74(y) P146(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E86 Leavingc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P146 lost member byop

P147 curatedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P147_curated

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E87 Curation Activity with the instance of E78 Collection or collections with that is subject of athat curation activity following some implicit or explicit curation plan. Examples: - The activities (E87) by the Benaki Museum curated the acquisition of dolls and games of urban and folk manufacture dating from the 17th to the 20th century, from England, France and Germany for the "Toys, Games and Childhood Collection (E78) of the Museum - The activities (E87) of the Historical Museum of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, curated the development of the permanent Numismatic Collection (E78) - The activities (E87) by Mikael Heggelund Foslie curated the Mikael Heggelund Foslie's coralline red algae Herbarium In First Order Logic: P147(x,y) ⊃ E87(x) P147(x,y) ⊃ E78(y)
has domain
E87 Curation Activityc
has range
E78 Collectionc
is inverse of
P147 was curated byop

P147 was curated byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P147i_was_curated_by

has domain
E78 Collectionc
has range
E87 Curation Activityc
is inverse of
P147 curatedop

P148 has componentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P148_has_component

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E89 Propositional Object with a structural part of it that is by itself an instance of E89 Propositional Object. Examples: - Dante's "Divine Comedy" (E89) has component Dante's "Hell" (E89) In First Order Logic: P148(x,y) ⊃ E89(x) P148(x,y) ⊃ E89(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E89 Propositional Objectc
has range
E89 Propositional Objectc
is inverse of
P148 is component ofop

P148 is component ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P148i_is_component_of

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E89 Propositional Objectc
has range
E89 Propositional Objectc
is inverse of
P148 has componentop

P149 identifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P149i_identifies

P149 is identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P149_is_identified_by

Scope note: This property identifies an instance of E28 Conceptual Object using an instance of E75 Conceptual Object Appellation. Examples: - The German edition of the CIDOC CRM (E73) is identified by ISBN 978-3-00-030907-6 (E75) In First Order Logic: P149(x,y) ⊃ E28(x) P149(x,y) ⊃ E75(y) P149(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)

P15 influencedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P15i_influenced

P15 was influenced byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P15_was_influenced_by

Scope note: This is a high level property, which captures the relationship between an E7 Activity and anything that may have had some bearing upon it. The property has more specific sub properties. Examples: - the designing of the Sydney Harbour Bridge (E7) was influenced by the Tyne bridge (E22) FOL: P15 (x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P15 (x,y) ⊃ E1(y)

P150 defines typical parts ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P150_defines_typical_parts_of

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E55 Type “A” with an instance of E55 Type “B”, when items of type “A” typically form part of items of type “B”, such as “car motors” and “cars”. It allows types to be organised into hierarchies based on one type describing a typical part of another. This property is equivalent to "broader term partitive (BTP)" as defined in ISO 2788 and “broaderPartitive” in SKOS. Examples: - Car motors (E55) defines typical parts of cars (E55) In First Order Logic: P150(x,y) ⊃ (E55 Type) P150(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P150 defines typical wholes forop

P150 defines typical wholes forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P150i_defines_typical_wholes_for

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P150 defines typical parts ofop

P151 participated inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P151i_participated_in

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E66 Formationc
is inverse of
P151 was formed fromop

P151 was formed fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P151_was_formed_from

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E66 Formation with an instance of E74 Group from which the new group was formed preserving a sense of continuity such as in mission, membership or tradition. Examples: - The formation of the House of Bourbon-Conti in 1581 (E66) was formed from House of Condé (E74) In First Order Logic: P151(x,y) ⊃ E66(x) P151(x,y) ⊃ E74(y) P151(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E66 Formationc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P151 participated inop

P152 has parentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P152_has_parent

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E21 Person with another instance of E21 Person who plays the role of the first instance’s parent, regardless of whether the relationship is biological parenthood, assumed or pretended biological parenthood or an equivalent legal status of rights and obligations obtained by a social or legal act. This property is, among others, a shortcut of the fully developed paths from ‘E21Person’ through ‘P98i was born’, ‘E67 Birth’, ‘P96 by mother’ to ‘E21 Person’, and from ‘E21Person’ through ‘P98i was born’, ‘E67 Birth’, ‘P97 from father’ to ‘E21 Person’. Examples: - Gaius Octavius (E29) has parent Julius Caesar (E29) - Steve Jobs (E29) has parent Joanne Simpson (biological mother)(E29) - Steve Jobs (E29) has parent Clara Jobs (adoption mother) (E29) In First Order Logic: P152(x,y) ⊃ E21(x) P152(x,y) ⊃ E21(y)
has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P152 is parent ofop

P152 is parent ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P152i_is_parent_of

has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P152 has parentop

P156 occupiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P156_occupies

Scope note: This property describes the largest volume in space that an instance of E18 Physical Thing has occupied at any time during its existence, with respect to the reference space relative to itself. This allows you to describe the thing itself as a place that may contain other things, such as a box that may contain coins. In other words, it is the volume that contains all the points which the thing has covered at some time during its existence. In the case of an E26 Physical Feature the default reference space is the one in which the object that bears the feature or at least the surrounding matter of the feature is at rest. In this case there is a 1:1 relation of E26 Feature and E53 Place. For simplicity of implementation multiple inheritance (E26 Feature IsA E53 Place) may be a practical approach. For instances of E19 Physical Objects the default reference space is the one which is at rest to the object itself, i.e. which moves together with the object. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces. This property is a subproperty of P161 has spatial projection because it refers to its own domain as reference space for its range, whereas P161 has spatial projection may refer to a place in terms of any reference space. For some instances of E18 Physical Object the relative stability of form may not be sufficient to define a useful local reference space, for instance for an amoeba. In such cases the fully developed path to an external reference space and using a temporal validity component may be adequate to determine the place they have occupied. In contrast to P156 occupies, the property P53 has former or current location identifies an instance of E53 Place at which a thing is or has been for some unspecified time span. Further it does not constrain the reference space of the referred instance of P53 Place. In First Order Logic: P156 (x,y) = [E18(x) ∧ E53(y) ∧ P161(x,y) ∧ P157(y,x)]
has super-properties
P161 has spatial projectionop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E53 Placec

P157 is at rest relative toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P157_is_at_rest_relative_to

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E53 Place with the instance of E18 Physical Thing that determines a reference space for this instance of E53 Place by being at rest with respect to this reference space. The relative stability of form of an E18 Physical Thing defines its default reference space. The reference space is not spatially limited to the referred thing. For example, a ship determines a reference space in terms of which other ships in its neighbourhood may be described. Larger constellations of matter, such as continental plates, may comprise many physical features that are at rest with them and define the same reference space. Examples: - The spatial extent of the municipality of Athens in 2014 (E53) is at rest relative to The Royal Observatory in Greenwich (E25) - The place where Lord Nelson died on H.M.S. Victory (E53) is at rest relative to H.M.S. Victory (E22) In First Order Logic: P157(x,y) ⊃ E53(x) P157(x,y) ⊃ E18(y)

P157 provides reference space forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P157i_provides_reference_space_for

has sub-properties
P59 has sectionop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P157 is at rest relative toop

P16 used specific objectop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16_used_specific_object

Scope note: This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity. This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer. Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use. Examples: - the writing of this scope note (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts' computer (E22) mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55) - the people of Iraq calling the place identified by TGN '7017998' (E7) used specific object "Quyunjig" (E44) mode of use Current; Vernacular (E55) FOL: P16 (x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P16 (x,y) ⊃ E70(y) P16 (x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y) P16 (x,y) ⊃ P15(x,y) P16(x,y,z) ⊃ [P16(x,y) ∧ E55(z)]

P16 was used forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P16i_was_used_for

has super-properties
P12 was present atop
P15 influencedop
has sub-properties
P111 was added byop, P142 was used inop, P33 was used byop
has domain
E70 Thingc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P16 used specific objectop

P160 has temporal projectionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P160_has_temporal_projection

Scope note: This property describes the temporal projection of an instance of an E92 Spacetime Volume. The property P4 has time-span is the same as P160 has temporal projection if it is used to document an instance of E4 Period or any subclass of it. Example: In First Order Logic: P160(x,y) ⊃ E92(x) P160(x,y)⊃ E52(y)

P161 has spatial projectionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P161_has_spatial_projection

Scope note: This property associates an instance of a E92 Spacetime Volume with an instance of E53 Place that is the result of the spatial projection of the instance of a E92 Spacetime Volume on a reference space. In general there can be more than one useful reference space to describe the spatial projection of a spacetime volume, such as that of a battle ship versus that of the seafloor. Therefore the projection is not unique. This is part of the fully developed path that is shortcut by P7took place at (witnessed. The more fully developed path from E4 Period through P161 has spatial projection, E53 Place, P89 falls within (contains) to E53 Place. Example In First Order Logic: P161(x,y) ⊃ E92(x) P161(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)
has sub-properties
P156 occupiesop
has domain
E92 Spacetime Volumec
has range
E53 Placec

P164 is restricted byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P164_during

Scope note: This property relates an E93 Presence with an arbitrary E52 Time-Span that defines the section of the spacetime volume that this instance of E93 Presence is related to by P166 was a presence of (had presence). that is concerned by this instance of E93 Presence. Examples: In First Order Logic: P164 (x,y) ⊃ E93(x) P164 (x,y) ⊃ E52(y)

p164i was time span ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P164i_was_time-span_of

p165 incorporatesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P165_incorporates

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E73 Information Object with an instance of E90 Symbolic Object (or any of its subclasses) that was included in it. This property makes it possible to recognise the autonomous status of the incorporated signs, which were created in a distinct context, and can be incorporated in many distinct self-contained expressions, and to highlight the difference between structural and accidental whole-part relationships between conceptual entities. It accounts for many cultural facts that are quite frequent and significant: the inclusion of a poem in an anthology, the re-use of an operatic aria in a new opera, the use of a reproduction of a painting for a book cover or a CD booklet, the integration of textual quotations, the presence of lyrics in a song that sets those lyrics to music, the presence of the text of a play in a movie based on that play, etc. In particular, this property allows for modelling relationships of different levels of symbolic specificity, such as the natural language words making up a particular text, the characters making up the words and punctuation, the choice of fonts and page layout for the characters. A digital photograph of a manuscript page incorporates the text of the manuscript page It is an implicit transitive property. Examples: - The content of Charles-Moïse Briquet’s ‘Les Filigranes: dictionnaire historique des marques du papier’ (E32) P165 incorporates the visual aspect of the watermark used around 1358-61 by some Spanish papermaker(s) and identified as ‘Briquet 4019’ (E37) - The visual content of Jacopo Amigoni’s painting known as ‘The Singer Farinelli and friends’ (E38) P165 incorporates the musical notation of Farinelli’s musical work entitled ‘La Partenza’ (E73) - The visual content of Nicolas Poussin’s painting entitled ‘Les Bergers d’Arcadie’ (E38) P165 incorporates the Latin phrase ‘Et in Arcadia ego’ (E33) In First Order Logic: P165(x,y) ⊃ E73(x) P165(x,y) ⊃ E90(y) P165(x,y) ⊃ P106(x,y)
has super-properties
P106 is composed ofop
has domain
E73 Information Objectc
has range
E90 Symbolic Objectc
is inverse of
p165i is incorporated inop

p165i is incorporated inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P165i_is_incorporated_in

has super-properties
P106 forms part ofop
is inverse of
p165 incorporatesop

p166 was a presence ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P166_was_a_presence_of

Scope Note: This property relates an E93 Presence with the STV it is part of... In First Order Logic: P166(x,y) ⊃ E93(x) P166(x,y) ⊃ E92(y)

p166i had presenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P166i_had_presence

p167 atop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167_at

Scope Note: This property points to a wider area in which my thing /event was ... In First Order Logic: P167(x,y) ⊃ E93(x) P167(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)
has domain
E93 Spacetime Snapshotc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
p167i was place ofop

p167i was place ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P167i_was_place_of

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E93 Spacetime Snapshotc
is inverse of
p167 atop

P17 motivatedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P17i_motivated

has super-properties
P15 influencedop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P17 was motivated byop

P17 was motivated byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P17_was_motivated_by

Scope note: This property describes an item or items that are regarded as a reason for carrying out the E7 Activity. For example, the discovery of a large hoard of treasure may call for a celebration, an order from head quarters can start a military manoeuvre. Examples: - the resignation of the chief executive (E7) was motivated by the collapse of Swiss Air (E68). - the coronation of Elizabeth II (E7) was motivated by the death of George VI (E69) FOL: P17(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P17(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P17 (x,y) ⊃ P15(x,y)
has super-properties
P15 was influenced byop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P17 motivatedop

P19 was intended use ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P19_was_intended_use_of

Scope note: This property relates an E7 Activity with objects created specifically for use in the activity. This is distinct from the intended use of an item in some general type of activity such as the book of common prayer which was intended for use in Church of England services (see P101 had as general use (was use of)). Examples: - Lady Diana Spencer's wedding dress (E71) was made for Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer (E7) mode of use To Be Worn (E55) FOL: P19(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P19(x,y) ⊃ E71(y) P19(x,y,z) ⊃ [P19(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] Properties: P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E71 Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P19 was made forop

P19 was made forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P19i_was_made_for

has domain
E71 Man-Made Thingc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P19 was intended use ofop

P2 has typeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P2_has_type

Scope note: This property allows sub typing of CRM entities - a form of specialisation – through the use of a terminological hierarchy, or thesaurus. The CRM is intended to focus on the high-level entities and relationships needed to describe data structures. Consequently, it does not specialise entities any further than is required for this immediate purpose. However, entities in the isA hierarchy of the CRM may by specialised into any number of sub entities, which can be defined in the E55 Type hierarchy. E51 Contact Point, for example, may be specialised into "e-mail address", "telephone number", "post office box", "URL" etc. none of which figures explicitly in the CRM hierarchy. Sub typing obviously requires consistency between the meaning of the terms assigned and the more general intent of the CRM entity in question. Examples: - "enquiries@cidoc-crm.org" (E51) has type e-mail address (E55) In First Order Logic: P2(x,y) ⊃ E1(x) P2(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
has sub-properties
P137 exemplifiesop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P2 is type ofop

P2 is type ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P2i_is_type_of

has sub-properties
P137 is exemplified byop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P2 has typeop

P20 had specific purposeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P20_had_specific_purpose

Scope note: This property identifies the relationship between a preparatory activity and the event it is intended to be preparation for. This includes activities, orders and other organisational actions, taken in preparation for other activities or events. P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) implies that an activity succeeded in achieving its aim. If it does not succeed, such as the setting of a trap that did not catch anything, one may document the unrealized intention using P21 had general purpose (was purpose of):E55 Type and/or P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure. Examples: - Van Eyck's pigment grinding in 1432 (E7) had specific purpose the painting of the Ghent altar piece (E12) In First Order Logic: P21(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P21(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E5 Eventc
is inverse of
P20 was purpose ofop

P20 was purpose ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P20i_was_purpose_of

has domain
E5 Eventc
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P20 had specific purposeop

P21 had general purposeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P21_had_general_purpose

Scope note: This property describes an intentional relationship between an E7 Activity and some general goal or purpose. This may involve activities intended as preparation for some type of activity or event. P21had general purpose (was purpose of) differs from P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) in that no occurrence of an event is implied as the purpose. Examples: - Van Eyck's pigment grinding (E7) had general purpose painting (E55) - the setting of trap 2742 on May 17th 1874 (E7) had general purpose Catching Moose (E55) (Activity type In First Order Logic: P21(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P21(x,y) ⊃ E55(y)
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P21 was purpose ofop

P21 was purpose ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P21i_was_purpose_of

has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P21 had general purposeop

P22 acquired title throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P22i_acquired_title_through

has characteristics: inverse functional

has super-properties
P14 performedop
has range
E8 Acquisitionc
is inverse of
P22 transferred title toop

P22 transferred title toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P22_transferred_title_to

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor that acquires the legal ownership of an object as a result of an E8 Acquisition. The property will typically describe an Actor purchasing or otherwise acquiring an object from another Actor. However, title may also be acquired, without any corresponding loss of title by another Actor, through legal fieldwork such as hunting, shooting or fishing. In reality the title is either transferred to or from someone, or both. Examples: - acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnography Museum (E8) transferred title to Geneva Ethnography Museum (E74) In First Order Logic: P22(x,y) ⊃ E8(x) P22(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P22 (x,y) ⊃ P14(x,y)

has characteristics: functional

has super-properties
P14 carried out byop
has domain
E8 Acquisitionc
is inverse of
P22 acquired title throughop

P23 surrendered title throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P23i_surrendered_title_through

has super-properties
P14 performedop
has range
E8 Acquisitionc
is inverse of
P23 transferred title fromop

P23 transferred title fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P23_transferred_title_from

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who relinquish legal ownership as the result of an E8 Acquisition. The property will typically be used to describe a person donating or selling an object to a museum. In reality title is either transferred to or from someone, or both. Examples: - acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnographic Museum (E8) transferred title from Heirs of Amoudrouz (E74) In First Order Logic: P23(x,y) ⊃ E8(x) P23(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P23 (x,y) ⊃ P14(x,y)
has super-properties
P14 carried out byop
has domain
E8 Acquisitionc
is inverse of
P23 surrendered title throughop

P24 changed ownership throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P24i_changed_ownership_through

P24 transferred title ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P24_transferred_title_of

Scope note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing or things involved in an E8 Acquisition. In reality, an acquisition must refer to at least one transferred item. Examples: - acquisition of the Amoudrouz collection by the Geneva Ethnographic Museum (E8) transferred title of Amoudrouz Collection (E78) In First Order Logic: P24(x,y) ⊃ E8(x) P24(x,y) ⊃ E18(y)

P25 movedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P25_moved

Scope note: This property identifies an instance of E19 Physical Object that was moved by a move event. A move must concern at least one object. The property implies the object’s passive participation. For example, Monet’s painting “Impression sunrise” was moved for the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. Examples: - Monet´s “Impression sunrise” (E22) moved by preparations for the First Impressionist Exhibition (E9) In First Order Logic: P25(x,y) ⊃ E9(x) P25(x,y) ⊃ E19(y) P25(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)
has super-properties
P12 occurred in the presence ofop
has domain
E9 Movec
has range
E19 Physical Objectc
is inverse of
P25 moved byop

P25 moved byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P25i_moved_by

has super-properties
P12 was present atop
has domain
E19 Physical Objectc
has range
E9 Movec
is inverse of
P25 movedop

P26 moved toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P26_moved_to

Scope note: This property identifies a destination of a E9 Move. A move will be linked to a destination, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many terminal instances of E53 Place by multiple instances of this property. In this case the move describes a distribution of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin(s), route and destination(s). Therefore the described destination is an instance of E53 Place which P89 falls within (contains) the instance of E53 Place the move P7 took place at. Examples: - the movement of Tut-Ankh-Amun Exhibition (E9) moved to The British Museum (E53) In First Order Logic: P26(x,y) ⊃ E9(x) P26(x,y) ⊃ E53(y) P26(x,y) ⊃ (z)[ E53(z) ∧ P7(x,z) ∧ P89(y,z)]
has domain
E9 Movec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P26 was destination ofop

P26 was destination ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P26i_was_destination_of

has super-properties
P7 witnessedop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E9 Movec
is inverse of
P26 moved toop

P27 moved fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P27_moved_from

Scope note: This property identifies a starting E53 Place of an E9 Move. A move will be linked to an origin, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many starting instances of E53 Place by multiple instances of this property. In this case the move describes the picking up of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin(s), route and destination(s). Therefore the described origin is an instance of E53 Place which P89 falls within (contains) the instance of E53 Place the move P7 took place at. Examples: - the movement of Tut-Ankh-Amun Exhibition (E9) moved from The Egyptian Museum in Cairo (E53) In First Order Logic: P27(x,y) ⊃ E9(x) P27(x,y) ⊃ E53(y) P27(x,y) ⊃ (z)[ E53(z) ∧ P7(x,z) ∧ P89(y,z)]

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E9 Movec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P27 was origin ofop

P27 was origin ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P27i_was_origin_of

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
P7 witnessedop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E9 Movec
is inverse of
P27 moved fromop

P28 custody surrendered byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P28_custody_surrendered_by

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who surrender custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity. The property will typically describe an Actor surrendering custody of an object when it is handed over to someone else's care. On occasion, physical custody may be surrendered involuntarily – through accident, loss or theft. In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both. Examples: - the Secure Deliveries Inc. crew (E40) surrendered custody through The delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) In First Order Logic: P28(x,y) ⊃ E10(x) P28(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P28(x,y) ⊃ P14(x,y)
has super-properties
P14 carried out byop
has domain
E10 Transfer of Custodyc
is inverse of
P28 surrendered custody throughop

P28 surrendered custody throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P28i_surrendered_custody_through

has super-properties
P14 performedop
has range
E10 Transfer of Custodyc
is inverse of
P28 custody surrendered byop

P29 custody received byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P29_custody_received_by

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who receive custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity. The property will typically describe Actors receiving custody of an object when it is handed over from another Actor's care. On occasion, physical custody may be received involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft. In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both. Examples: - representatives of The National Gallery (E40) received custody through. The delivery of the paintings by Secure Delivieries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) In First Order Logic: P29 (x,y) ⊃ E10(x) P29 (x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P29(x,y) ⊃ P14(x,y)
has super-properties
P14 carried out byop
has domain
E10 Transfer of Custodyc
is inverse of
P29 received custody throughop

P29 received custody throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P29i_received_custody_through

has super-properties
P14 performedop
has range
E10 Transfer of Custodyc
is inverse of
P29 custody received byop

P30 custody transferred throughop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30i_custody_transferred_through

P30 transferred custody ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P30_transferred_custody_of

Scope note: This property identifies an item or items of E18 Physical Thing concerned in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity. The property will typically describe the object that is handed over by an E39 Actor to another Actor's custody. On occasion, physical custody may be transferred involuntarily or illegally – through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft. Examples: - the delivery of the paintings by Secure Deliveries Inc. to the National Gallery (E10) transferred custody of paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E19) In First Order Logic: P30 (x,y) ⊃ E10(x) P30 (x,y) ⊃ E18(y)

P31 has modifiedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P31_has_modified

Scope note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing modified in an E11 Modification. If a modification is applied to a non-man-made object, it is regarded as an E22 Man-Made Object from that time onwards. Examples: - rebuilding of the Reichstag (E11) has modified the Reichstag in Berlin (E24) In First Order Logic: P31(x,y) ⊃ E11(x) P31(x,y) ⊃ E24(y) P31(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)

P31 was modified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P31i_was_modified_by

P32 used general techniqueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P32_used_general_technique

Scope note: This property identifies the technique or method that was employed in an activity. These techniques should be drawn from an external E55 Type hierarchy of consistent terminology of general techniques or methods such as embroidery, oil-painting, carbon dating, etc. Specific documented techniques should be described as instances of E29 Design or Procedure. This property identifies the technique that was employed in an act of modification. Examples: - ornamentation of silver cup 113 (E11) used general technique gold-plating (E55) (Design or Procedure Type) In First Order Logic: P32(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P32(x,y) ⊃ E55(y) P32(x,y) ⊃ P125(x,y)
has super-properties
P125 used object of typeop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P32 was technique ofop

P32 was technique ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P32i_was_technique_of

has super-properties
P125 was type of object used inop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P32 used general techniqueop

P33 used specific techniqueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P33_used_specific_technique

Scope note: This property identifies a specific instance of E29 Design or Procedure in order to carry out an instance of E7 Activity or parts of it. The property differs from P32 used general technique (was technique of) in that P33 refers to an instance of E29 Design or Procedure, which is a concrete information object in its own right rather than simply being a term or a method known by tradition. Typical examples would include intervention plans for conservation or the construction plans of a building Examples: - Ornamentation of silver cup 232 (E11) used specific technique 'Instructions for golden chase work by A N Other' (E29) - Rebuilding of Reichstag (E11) used specific technique Architectural plans by Foster and Partners (E29) In First Order Logic: P33(x,y) ⊃ E7(x) P33(x,y) ⊃ E29(y) P33(x,y) ⊃ P16(x,y)
has super-properties
P16 used specific objectop
has domain
E7 Activityc
has range
E29 Design or Procedurec
is inverse of
P33 was used byop

P33 was used byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P33i_was_used_by

has super-properties
P16 was used forop
has domain
E29 Design or Procedurec
has range
E7 Activityc
is inverse of
P33 used specific techniqueop

P34 concernedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P34_concerned

Scope note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that was assessed during an E14 Condition Assessment activity. Conditions may be assessed either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the E18 Physical Thing does not need to be present or extant. Examples: - 1997 condition assessment of the silver collection (E14) concerned silver cup 232 (E22) In First Order Logic: P34(x,y) ⊃ E14(x) P34(x,y) ⊃ E18(y) P34(x,y) ⊃ P140(x,y)
has super-properties
P140 assigned attribute toop
has domain
E14 Condition Assessmentc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P34 was assessed byop

P34 was assessed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P34i_was_assessed_by

has super-properties
P140 was attributed byop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E14 Condition Assessmentc
is inverse of
P34 concernedop

P35 has identifiedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P35_has_identified

Scope note: This property identifies the E3 Condition State that was observed in an E14 Condition Assessment activity. Examples: - 1997 condition assessment of silver cup 232 (E14) has identified oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3) has type oxidation traces (E55) In First Order Logic: P35(x,y) ⊃E14(x) P35(x,y) ⊃ E3(y) P35(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)
has super-properties
P141 assignedop
has domain
E14 Condition Assessmentc
has range
E3 Condition Statec
is inverse of
P35 was identified byop

P35 was identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P35i_was_identified_by

has super-properties
P141 was assigned byop
has domain
E3 Condition Statec
has range
E14 Condition Assessmentc
is inverse of
P35 has identifiedop

P37 assignedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P37_assigned

Scope note: This property records the identifier that was assigned to an item in an Identifier Assignment activity. The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion. An Identifier might be created prior to an assignment. Examples: - 01 June 1997 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup donated by Martin Doerr (E15) assigned "232" (E42) In First Order Logic: P37(x,y) ⊃ E15(x) P37(x,y) ⊃ E42(y) P37(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)
has super-properties
P141 assignedop
has domain
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
has range
E42 Identifierc
is inverse of
P37 was assigned byop

P37 was assigned byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P37i_was_assigned_by

has super-properties
P141 was assigned byop
has domain
E42 Identifierc
has range
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
is inverse of
P37 assignedop

P38 deassignedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P38_deassigned

Scope note: This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an instance of E1 CRM Entity. Deassignment of an identifier may be necessary when an item is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or items are merged or split up. The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion. Examples: - 31 July 2001 Identifier Assignment of the silver cup OXCMS:2001.1.32 (E15) deassigned "232" (E42) In First Order Logic: P38(x,y) ⊃ E15(x) P38(x,y) ⊃ E42(y) P38(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)
has super-properties
P141 assignedop
has domain
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
has range
E42 Identifierc
is inverse of
P38 was deassigned byop

P38 was deassigned byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P38i_was_deassigned_by

has super-properties
P141 was assigned byop
has domain
E42 Identifierc
has range
E15 Identifier Assignmentc
is inverse of
P38 deassignedop

P39 measuredop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39_measured

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E16 Measurement with the instance of E1 CRM Entity to which it applied. An instance of E1 CRM Entity may be measured more than once. Material and immaterial things and processes may be measured, e.g. the number of words in a text, or the duration of an event. Examples: - 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22) In First Order Logic: P39(x,y) ⊃ E16(x) P39(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P39(x,y) ⊃ P140(x,y)
has super-properties
P140 assigned attribute toop
has domain
E16 Measurementc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P39 was measured byop

P39 was measured byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P39i_was_measured_by

has super-properties
P140 was attributed byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E16 Measurementc
is inverse of
P39 measuredop

P4 has time-spanop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P4_has_time-span

Scope note: This property describes the temporal confinement of an instance of an E2 Temporal Entity. The related E52 Time-Span is understood as the real Time-Span during which the phenomena were active, which make up the temporal entity instance. It does not convey any other meaning than a positioning on the "time-line" of chronology. The Time-Span in turn is approximated by a set of dates (E61 Time Primitive). A temporal entity can have in reality only one Time-Span, but there may exist alternative opinions about it, which we would express by assigning multiple Time-Spans. Related temporal entities may share a Time-Span. Time-Spans may have completely unknown dates but other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge. Examples: - the Yalta Conference (E7) has time-span Yalta Conference time-span (E52) In First Order Logic: P4(x,y) ⊃ E2(x) P4(x,y) ⊃ E52(y)
has domain
E2 Temporal Entityc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P4 is time-span ofop

P4 is time-span ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P4i_is_time-span_of

has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E2 Temporal Entityc
is inverse of
P4 has time-spanop

P40 observed dimensionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40_observed_dimension

Scope note: This property records the dimension that was observed in an E16 Measurement Event. E54 Dimension can be any quantifiable aspect of E70 Thing. Weight, image colour depth and monetary value are dimensions in this sense. One measurement activity may determine more than one dimension of one object. Dimensions may be determined either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the measured Thing does not need to be present or extant. Even though knowledge of the value of a dimension requires measurement, the dimension may be an object of discourse prior to, or even without, any measurement being made. Examples: - 31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) observed dimension silver cup 232 height (E54) has unit mm (E58), has value 224 (E60) In First Order Logic: P40(x,y) ⊃ E16(x) P40(x,y)⊃ E54(y) P40(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)
has super-properties
P141 assignedop
has domain
E16 Measurementc
has range
E54 Dimensionc
is inverse of
P40 was observed inop

P40 was observed inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P40i_was_observed_in

has super-properties
P141 was assigned byop
has domain
E54 Dimensionc
has range
E16 Measurementc
is inverse of
P40 observed dimensionop

P41 classifiedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P41_classified

Scope note: This property records the item to which a type was assigned in an E17 Type Assignment activity. Any instance of a CRM entity may be assigned a type through type assignment. Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of). Examples: - 31 August 1997 classification of silver cup 232 (E17) classified silver cup 232 (E22) In First Order Logic: P41(x,y) ⊃ E17(x) P41(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P41(x,y) ⊃ P140(x,y)
has super-properties
P140 assigned attribute toop
has domain
E17 Type Assignmentc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P41 was classified byop

P41 was classified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P41i_was_classified_by

has super-properties
P140 was attributed byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E17 Type Assignmentc
is inverse of
P41 classifiedop

P42 assignedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P42_assigned

Scope note: This property records the type that was assigned to an entity by an E17 Type Assignment activity. Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified by), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of). For example, a fragment of an antique vessel could be assigned the type “attic red figured belly handled amphora” by expert A. The same fragment could be assigned the type “shoulder handled amphora” by expert B. A Type may be intellectually constructed independent from assigning an instance of it. Examples: - 31 August 1997 classification of silver cup 232 (E17) assigned goblet (E55) In First Order Logic: P42(x,y) ⊃ E17(x) P42(x,y)⊃ E55(y) P42(x,y) ⊃ P141(x,y)
has super-properties
P141 assignedop
has domain
E17 Type Assignmentc
has range
E55 Typec
is inverse of
P42 was assigned byop

P42 was assigned byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P42i_was_assigned_by

has super-properties
P141 was assigned byop
has domain
E55 Typec
has range
E17 Type Assignmentc
is inverse of
P42 assignedop

P43 has dimensionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P43_has_dimension

Scope note: This property records a E54 Dimension of some E70 Thing. It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E70 Thing through P39 measured (was measured by), E16 Measurement P40 observed dimension (was observed in) to E54 Dimension. It offers no information about how and when an E54 Dimension was established, nor by whom. An instance of E54 Dimension is specific to an instance of E70 Thing. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) has dimension height of silver cup 232 (E54) has unit (P91) mm (E58), has value (P90) 224 (E60) In First Order Logic: P43(x,y) ⊃ E70(x) P43(x,y) ⊃ E54(y)
has domain
E70 Thingc
has range
E54 Dimensionc
is inverse of
P43 is dimension ofop

P43 is dimension ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P43i_is_dimension_of

has domain
E54 Dimensionc
has range
E70 Thingc
is inverse of
P43 has dimensionop

P44 has conditionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P44_has_condition

Scope note: This property records an E3 Condition State for some E18 Physical Thing. It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P34 concerned (was assessed by), E14 Condition Assessment P35 has identified (was identified by) to E3 Condition State. It offers no information about how and when the E3 Condition State was established, nor by whom. An instance of Condition State is specific to an instance of Physical Thing. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) has condition oxidation traces were present in 1997 (E3) has type oxidation traces (E55) In First Order Logic: P44(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P44(x,y) ⊃ E3(y)

P44 is condition ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P44i_is_condition_of

has domain
E3 Condition Statec
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P44 has conditionop

P45 consists ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45_consists_of

Scope note: This property identifies the instances of E57 Materials of which an instance of E18 Physical Thing is composed. All physical things consist of physical materials. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) allows the different Materials to be recorded. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) refers here to observed Material as opposed to the consumed raw material. A Material, such as a theoretical alloy, may not have any physical instances. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) consists of silver (E57) In First Order Logic: P45(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P45(x,y) ⊃ E57(y)
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E57 Materialc
is inverse of
P45 is incorporated inop

P45 is incorporated inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P45i_is_incorporated_in

has domain
E57 Materialc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P45 consists ofop

P46 forms part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P46i_forms_part_of

has characteristics: transitive

has sub-properties
P56 is found onop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P46 is composed ofop

P46 is composed ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P46_is_composed_of

Scope note: This property allows instances of E18 Physical Thing to be analysed into component elements. Component elements, since they are themselves instances of E18 Physical Thing, may be further analysed into sub-components, thereby creating a hierarchy of part decomposition. An instance of E18 Physical Thing may be shared between multiple wholes, for example two buildings may share a common wall. This property does not specify when and for how long a component element resided in the respective whole. If a component is not part of a whole from the beginning of existence or until the end of existence of the whole, the classes E79 Part Addition and E90 Part Removal can be used to document when a component became part of a particular whole and/or when it stopped being a part of it. For the time-span of being part of the respective whole, the component is completely contained in the place the whole occupies. This property is intended to describe specific components that are individually documented, rather than general aspects. Overall descriptions of the structure of an instance of E18 Physical Thing are captured by the P3 has note property. The instances of E57 Material of which an item of E18 Physical Thing is composed should be documented using P45 consists of (is incorporated in). Examples: - the Royal carriage (E22) forms part of the Royal train (E22) - the "Hog's Back" (E24) forms part of the "Fosseway" (E24) In First Order Logic: P46(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P46(x,y) ⊃ E18(y) P46(x,y) ⊃ P132(x,y) P46(x,y) ⊃ (uzw)[E93(u) ∧ P166 (x,u) ∧ E52(z) ∧ P164(u,z) ∧ E93(w) ∧ P166 (y,w) ∧ P164(w,z) ∧ P10(w,u)]

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
P132 overlaps withop
has sub-properties
P56 bears featureop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P46 forms part ofop

P48 has preferred identifierop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P48_has_preferred_identifier

Scope note: This property records the preferred E42 Identifier that was used to identify an instance of E1 CRM Entity at the time this property was recorded. More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an item over time. Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CRM instance. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of), is a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Identifier. The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be better expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment using the P2 has type property. Examples: - the pair of Lederhosen donated by Dr Martin Doerr (E22) has preferred identifier "OXCMS:2001.1.32" (E42) In First Order Logic: P48(x,y) ⊃ E1(x) P48(x,y) ⊃ E42(y) P48(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)
has super-properties
P1 is identified byop
has range
E42 Identifierc
is inverse of
P48 is preferred identifier ofop

P48 is preferred identifier ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P48i_is_preferred_identifier_of

has super-properties
P1 identifiesop
has domain
E42 Identifierc
is inverse of
P48 has preferred identifierop

P49 has former or current keeperop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P49_has_former_or_current_keeper

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who have or have had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time. The distinction with P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is that P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) leaves open the question as to whether the specified keepers are current. P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) or P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor. Examples: - paintings from The Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current keeper Secure Deliveries Inc. (E40) In First Order Logic: P49(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P49(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)

P49 is former or current keeper ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P49i_is_former_or_current_keeper_of

P5 consists ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P5_consists_of

Scope note: This property describes the decomposition of an E3 Condition State into discrete, subsidiary states.It is assumed that the sub-states into which the condition state is analysed form a logical whole - although the entire story may not be completely known – and that the sub-states are in fact constitutive of the general condition state. For example, a general condition state of “in ruins” may be decomposed into the individual stages of decay. This property is transitive Examples: - The Condition State of the ruined Parthenon (E3) consists of the bombarded state after the explosion of a Venetian shell in 1687 (E3) In First Order Logic: P5(x,y) ⊃ E3(x) P5(x,y) ⊃ E3(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E3 Condition Statec
has range
E3 Condition Statec
is inverse of
P5 forms part ofop

P5 forms part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P5i_forms_part_of

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E3 Condition Statec
has range
E3 Condition Statec
is inverse of
P5 consists ofop

P50 has current keeperop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P50_has_current_keeper

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property. P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor. Examples: - painting from The Iveagh Bequest (E18) has current keeper The National Gallery (E40) In First Order Logic: P50(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P50(x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P50(x,y) ⊃ P49(x,y)

P50 is current keeper ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P50i_is_current_keeper_of

P51 has former or current ownerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P51_has_former_or_current_owner

Scope note: This property identifies the E39 Actor that is or has been the legal owner (i.e. title holder) of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time. The distinction with P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is that P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) does not indicate whether the specified owners are current. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition, P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through), or P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor. Examples: - paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E18) has former or current owner Lord Iveagh (E21) In First Order Logic: P51(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P51(x,y) ⊃ E39(y)
has sub-properties
P52 has current ownerop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P51 is former or current owner ofop

P51 is former or current owner ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P51i_is_former_or_current_owner_of

has sub-properties
P52 is current owner ofop
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P51 has former or current ownerop

P52 has current ownerop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P52_has_current_owner

Scope note: This property identifies the E21 Person, E74 Group or E40 Legal Body that was the owner of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property. P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition, P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor, if and only if this acquisition event is the most recent. Examples: - paintings from the Iveagh Bequest (E18) has current owner «English Heritage» (E40) In First Order Logic: P52 (x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P52 (x,y) ⊃ E39(y) P52(x,y) ⊃ P51(x,y) P52(x,y) ⊃ P105(x,y)

P52 is current owner ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P52i_is_current_owner_of

P53 has former or current locationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P53_has_former_or_current_location

Scope note: This property allows an instance of E53 Place to be associated as the former or current location of an instance of E18 Physical Thing. In the case of E19 Physical Objects, the property does not allow any indication of the Time-Span during which the Physical Object was located at this Place, nor if this is the current location. In the case of immobile objects, the Place would normally correspond to the Place of creation. P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move, P26 moved to (was destination of) or P27 moved from (was origin of) to E53 Place. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) has former or current location Display Case 4, Room 23, Museum of Oxford (E53) In First Order Logic: P53(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P53(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)

P53 is former or current location ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P53i_is_former_or_current_location_of

has sub-properties
P55 currently holdsop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P53 has former or current locationop

P54 has current permanent locationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P54_has_current_permanent_location

Scope note: This property records the foreseen permanent location of an instance of E19 Physical Object at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property. P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) is similar to P55 has current location (currently holds). However, it indicates the E53 Place currently reserved for an object, such as the permanent storage location or a permanent exhibit location. The object may be temporarily removed from the permanent location, for example when used in temporary exhibitions or loaned to another institution. The object may never actually be located at its permanent location. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) has current permanent location Shelf 3.1, Store 2, Museum of Oxford (E53)

P54 is current permanent location ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P54i_is_current_permanent_location_of

P55 currently holdsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P55i_currently_holds

P55 has current locationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P55_has_current_location

Scope note: This property records the location of an E19 Physical Object at the time of validity of the record or database containing the statement that uses this property. This property is a specialisation of P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of). It indicates that the E53 Place associated with the E19 Physical Object is the current location of the object. The property does not allow any indication of how long the Object has been at the current location. P55 has current location (currently holds) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move P26 moved to (was destination of) to E53 Place if and only if this Move is the most recent. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) has current location Display cabinet 23, Room 4, British Museum (E53) In First Order Logic: P55(x,y) ⊃ E19(x) P55(x,y) ⊃ E53(y) P55(x,y) ⊃ P53(x,y)
has super-properties
P53 has former or current locationop
has domain
E19 Physical Objectc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P55 currently holdsop

P56 bears featureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P56_bears_feature

Scope note: This property links an instance of E19 Physical Object to an instance of E26 Physical Feature that it bears. An E26 Physical Feature can only exist on one object. One object may bear more than one E26 Physical Feature. An E27 Site should be considered as an E26 Physical Feature on the surface of the Earth. An instance B of E26 Physical Feature being a detail of the structure of another instance A of E26 Physical Feature can be linked to B by use of the property P46 is composed of (forms part of). This implies that the subfeature B is P56i found on the same E19 Physical Object as A. P56 bears feature (is found on) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P59 has section (is located on or within), E53 Place, P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) to E26 Physical Feature. Examples: - silver cup 232 (E22) bears feature 32 mm scratch on silver cup 232 (E26) In First Order Logic: P56(x,y) ⊃E19(x) P56(x,y) ⊃ E26(y) P56(x,y) ⊃ P46(x,y)
has super-properties
P46 is composed ofop
has domain
E19 Physical Objectc
has range
E26 Physical Featurec
is inverse of
P56 is found onop

P56 is found onop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P56i_is_found_on

has super-properties
P46 forms part ofop
has domain
E26 Physical Featurec
has range
E19 Physical Objectc
is inverse of
P56 bears featureop

P58 defines sectionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58i_defines_section

P58 has section definitionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P58_has_section_definition

Scope note: This property links an area (section) named by a E46 Section Definition to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found. The CRM handles sections as locations (instances of E53 Place) within or on E18 Physical Thing that are identified by E46 Section Definitions. Sections need not be discrete and separable components or parts of an object. This is part of a more developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P58, E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) that allows a more precise definition of a location found on an object than the shortcut P59 has section (is located on or within). A particular instance of a Section Definition only applies to one instance of Physical Thing. Examples: - HMS Victory (E22) has section definition "poop deck of HMS Victory" (E46) In First Order Logic: P58(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P58(x,y) ⊃ E46(y)

P59 has sectionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P59_has_section

Scope note: This property links an area to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found. It is typically used when a named E46 Section Definition is not appropriate. E18 Physical Thing may be subdivided into arbitrary regions. P59 has section (is located on or within) is a shortcut. If the E53 Place is identified by a Section Definition, a more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E18 Physical Thing through P58 has section definition (defines section), E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) to E53 Place. A Place can only be located on or within one Physical Object. Examples: - HMS Victory (E22) has section HMS Victory section B347.6 (E53) In First Order Logic: P59(x,y) ⊃ E18(x) P59(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)
has super-properties
P157 provides reference space forop
has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P59 is located on or withinop

P59 is located on or withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P59i_is_located_on_or_within

has super-properties
P157 is at rest relative toop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P59 has sectionop

P62 depictsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P62_depicts

Scope note: This property identifies something that is depicted by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. Depicting is meant in the sense that the surface of the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing shows, through its passive optical qualities or form, a representation of the entity depicted. It does not pertain to inscriptions or any other information encoding. This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity. P62.1 mode of depiction allows the nature of the depiction to be refined. Examples: - The painting "La Liberté guidant le peuple" by Eugène Delacroix (E84) depicts the French "July Revolution" of 1830 (E7) - the 20 pence coin held by the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum under registration number 2006,1101.126 (E24) depicts Queen Elizabeth II (E21) mode of depiction Profile (E55) In First Order Logic: P62(x,y) ⊃ E24(x) P62(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P62(x,y,z) ⊃ [P62(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] Properties: P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type

P62 is depicted byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P62i_is_depicted_by

has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P62 depictsop

P65 is shown byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P65i_is_shown_by

has super-properties
P128 is carried byop
has domain
E36 Visual Itemc
has range
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
is inverse of
P65 shows visual itemop

P65 shows visual itemop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P65_shows_visual_item

Scope note: This property documents an E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. This property is similar to P62 depicts (is depicted by) in that it associates an item of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing with a visual representation. However, P65 shows visual item (is shown by) differs from the P62 depicts (is depicted by) property in that it makes no claims about what the E36 Visual Item is deemed to represent. E36 Visual Item identifies a recognisable image or visual symbol, regardless of what this image may or may not represent. For example, all recent British coins bear a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, a fact that is correctly documented using P62 depicts (is depicted by). Different portraits have been used at different periods, however. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) can be used to refer to a particular portrait. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) may also be used for Visual Items such as signs, marks and symbols, for example the 'Maltese Cross' or the 'copyright symbol’ that have no particular representational content. This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity which is shortcut by, P62 depicts (is depicted by). Examples: - My T-Shirt (E22) shows visual item Mona Lisa (E38) In First Order Logic: P65(x,y) ⊃ E24(x) P65(x,y) ⊃ E36(y) P65(x,y) ⊃ P128(x,y)
has super-properties
P128 carriesop
has domain
E24 Physical Man-Made Thingc
has range
E36 Visual Itemc
is inverse of
P65 is shown byop

P67 is referred to byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P67i_is_referred_to_by

P67 refers toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P67_refers_to

Scope note: This property documents that an E89 Propositional Object makes a statement about an instance of E1 CRM Entity. P67 refers to (is referred to by) has the P67.1 has type link to an instance of E55 Type. This is intended to allow a more detailed description of the type of reference. This differs from P129 is about (is subject of), which describes the primary subject or subjects of the E89 Propositional Object. Examples: - the eBay auction listing for 4 July 2002 (E73) refers to silver cup 232 (E22) has type item for sale (E55) In First Order Logic: P67(x,y) ⊃ E89(x) P67(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P67(x,y,z) ⊃ [P67(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] Properties: P67.1 has type: E55 Type

P68 foresees use ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P68_foresees_use_of

Scope note: This property identifies an E57 Material foreseeen to be used by an E29 Design or Procedure. E29 Designs and procedures commonly foresee the use of particular E57 Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented. This property is not intended for the documentation of E57 Materials that were used on a particular occasion when an instance of E29 Design or Procedure was executed. Examples: - procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) foresees use of soda (E57) In First Order Logic: P68(x,y) ⊃ E29(x) P68(x,y) ⊃ E57(y) P68(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)
has super-properties
P67 refers toop
has domain
E29 Design or Procedurec
has range
E57 Materialc
is inverse of
P68 use foreseen byop

P68 use foreseen byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P68i_use_foreseen_by

has super-properties
P67 is referred to byop
has domain
E57 Materialc
has range
E29 Design or Procedurec
is inverse of
P68 foresees use ofop

P69 has association withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P69_has_association_with

Scope note: This property generalises relationships like whole-part, sequence, prerequisite or inspired by between instances of E29 Design or Procedure. Any instance of E29 Design or Procedure may be associated with other designs or procedures. The property is considered to be symmetrical unless otherwise indicated by P69.1 has type. The P69.1 has type property of P69 has association with allows the nature of the association to be specified reading from domain to range; examples of types of association between instances of E29 Design or Procedure include: has part, follows, requires, etc. The property can typically be used to model the decomposition of the description of a complete workflow into a series of separate procedures. Examples: - Procedure for glass blowing (E29) has association with procedure for glass heating (E29) - The set of instructions for performing Macbeth in Max Reinhardt's production in 1916 in Berlin at Deutsches Theater (E29) has association with the scene design drawing by Ernst Stern reproduced at http://www.glopad.org/pi/fr/record/digdoc/1003814 (E29) has type has part (E55) - Preparation of parchment (E29) has association with soaking and unhairing of skin (E29) has type 'has part' (E55). Preparation of parchment (E29) has association with stretching of skin (E29) has type 'has part' (E55). Stretching of skin (E29) has association with soaking and unhairing of skin (E29) has type 'follows' (E55). - The plan for reassembling the temples at Abu Simbel (E29) has association with the plan for storing and transporting the blocks (E29) has type 'follows' (E55)'. In First Order Logic: P69 (x,y) ⊃ E29(x) P69 (x,y) ⊃ E29(y) P69(x,y,z) ⊃ [P69(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] P69(x,y) ⊃P69(y,x) Properties: P69.1 has type: E55 Type

P69 is associated withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P69i_is_associated_with

P7 took place atop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P7_took_place_at

Scope note: This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period. The related E53 Place should be seen as an approximation of the geographical area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred. P7took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (generally on the surface of the earth). For example, the period "Révolution française" can be said to have taken place in "France", the "Victorian" period, may be said to have taken place in "Britain" and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and north America. A period can take place at multiple locations. It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P161 has spatial projection, E53 Place, P89 falls within (contains) to E53 Place. Describe in words. Examples - the period "Révolution française" (E4) took place at France (E53) In First Order Logic: P7(x,y) ⊃ E4(x) P7(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)
has domain
E4 Periodc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P7 witnessedop

P7 witnessedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P7i_witnessed

has sub-properties
P26 was destination ofop, P27 was origin ofop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E4 Periodc
is inverse of
P7 took place atop

P70 documentsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P70_documents

Scope note: This property describes the CRM Entities documented by instances of E31 Document. Documents may describe any conceivable entity, hence the link to the highest-level entity in the CRM hierarchy. This property is intended for cases where a reference is regarded as being of a documentary character, in the scholarly or scientific sense. Examples: - the British Museum catalogue (E31) documents the British Museum's Collection (E78) In First Order Logic: P70 (x,y) ⊃ E31(x) P70 (x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P70(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)
has super-properties
P67 refers toop
has domain
E31 Documentc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P70 is documented inop

P70 is documented inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P70i_is_documented_in

has super-properties
P67 is referred to byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E31 Documentc
is inverse of
P70 documentsop

P71 is listed inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P71i_is_listed_in

has super-properties
P67 is referred to byop
has domain
E1 CRM Entityc
has range
E32 Authority Documentc
is inverse of
P71 listsop

P71 listsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P71_lists

Scope note: This property documents a source E32 Authority Document for an instance of an E1 CRM Entity. Examples: - the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (E32) lists alcazars (E55) In First Order Logic: P71(x,y) ⊃ E32(x) P71(x,y) ⊃ E1(y) P71(x,y) ⊃ P67(x,y)
has super-properties
P67 refers toop
has domain
E32 Authority Documentc
has range
E1 CRM Entityc
is inverse of
P71 is listed inop

P72 has languageop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P72_has_language

Scope note: This property describes the E56 Language of an E33 Linguistic Object. Linguistic Objects are composed in one or more human Languages. This property allows these languages to be documented. Examples: - the American Declaration of Independence (E33) has language 18th Century English (E56) In First Order Logic: P72(x,y) ⊃ E33(x) P72(x,y) ⊃ E56(y)
has domain
E33 Linguistic Objectc
has range
E56 Languagec
is inverse of
P72 is language ofop

P72 is language ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P72i_is_language_of

has domain
E56 Languagec
has range
E33 Linguistic Objectc
is inverse of
P72 has languageop

P73 has translationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P73_has_translation

Scope note: This property describes the source and target of instances of E33Linguistic Object involved in a translation. When a Linguistic Object is translated into a new language it becomes a new Linguistic Object, despite being conceptually similar to the source object. Examples: - "Les Baigneurs" (E33) has translation "The Bathers" (E33) In First Order Logic: P73(x,y) ⊃ E33(x) P73(x,y) ⊃ E33(y) P73(x,y) ⊃ P130(y,x)
has super-properties
P130 shows features ofop
has domain
E33 Linguistic Objectc
has range
E33 Linguistic Objectc
is inverse of
P73 is translation ofop

P73 is translation ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P73i_is_translation_of

P74 has current or former residenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P74_has_current_or_former_residence

Scope note: This property describes the current or former E53 Place of residence of an E39 Actor. The residence may be either the Place where the Actor resides, or a legally registered address of any kind. Examples: - Queen Elizabeth II (E39) has current or former residence Buckingham Palace (E53) In First Order Logic: P74(x,y) ⊃ E39(x) P74(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)

P74 is current or former residence ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P74i_is_current_or_former_residence_of

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P74 has current or former residenceop

P75 is possessed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P75i_is_possessed_by

has domain
E30 Rightc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P75 possessesop

P75 possessesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P75_possesses

Scope note: This property identifies former or current instances of E30 Rights held by an E39 Actor. Examples: - Michael Jackson (E21) possesses Intellectual property rights on the Beatles' back catalogue (E30) In First Order Logic: P75(x,y) ⊃ E39(x) P75(x,y) ⊃ E30(y)
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E30 Rightc
is inverse of
P75 is possessed byop

P76 has contact pointop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P76_has_contact_point

Scope note: This property identifies an E51 Contact Point of any type that provides access to an E39 Actor by any communication method, such as e-mail or fax. Examples: - RLG (E40) has contact point "bl.ric@rlg.org" (E51) In First Order Logic: P76(x,y) ⊃ E39(x) P76(x,y) ⊃ E51(y)
has domain
E39 Actorc
has range
E51 Contact Pointc
is inverse of
P76 provides access toop

P76 provides access toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P76i_provides_access_to

has domain
E51 Contact Pointc
has range
E39 Actorc
is inverse of
P76 has contact pointop

P78 identifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P78i_identifies

has super-properties
P1 identifiesop
has domain
E49 Time Appellationc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P78 is identified byop

P78 is identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P78_is_identified_by

Scope note: This property identifies an E52 Time-Span using an E49Time Appellation. Examples: - the time span 1926 to 1988 (E52) is identified by "Showa" (Japanese time appellation) (E49) In First Order Logic: P78(x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P78(x,y) ⊃ E49(y) P78(x,y) ⊃ P1(x,y)
has super-properties
P1 is identified byop
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E49 Time Appellationc
is inverse of
P78 identifiesop

P8 took place on or withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P8_took_place_on_or_within

Scope note: This property describes the location of an instance of E4 Period with respect to an E19 Physical Object. P8 took place on or within (witnessed) is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E4 Period through P7 took place at, E53 Place, P156 occupies (is occupied by) to E18 Physical Thing. It describes a period that can be located with respect to the space defined by an E19 Physical Object such as a ship or a building. The precise geographical location of the object during the period in question may be unknown or unimportant. For example, the French and German armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed in the same railway carriage as the armistice of 11 November 1918. Examples: - the coronation of Queen Elisabeth II (E7) took place on or within Westminster Abbey (E19) In First Order Logic: P8(x,y) ⊃ E4(x) P8(x,y) ⊃ E18(y)
has domain
E4 Periodc
has range
E18 Physical Thingc
is inverse of
P8 witnessedop

P8 witnessedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P8i_witnessed

has domain
E18 Physical Thingc
has range
E4 Periodc
is inverse of
P8 took place on or withinop

P83 had at least durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P83_had_at_least_duration

Scope note: This property describes the minimum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span. It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it’s minimum duration (i.e. it’s inner boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end. Examples: - the time span of the Battle of Issos 333 B.C.E. (E52) had at least duration Battle of Issos minimum duration (E54) has unit (P91) day (E58) has value (P90) 1 (E60) In First Order Logic: P83(x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P83(x,y) ⊃ E54(y)
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E54 Dimensionc
is inverse of
P83 was minimum duration ofop

P83 was minimum duration ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P83i_was_minimum_duration_of

has domain
E54 Dimensionc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P83 had at least durationop

P84 had at most durationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P84_had_at_most_duration

Scope note: This property describes the maximum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span. It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it’s maximum duration (i.e. it’s outer boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end. Examples: - the time span of the Battle of Issos 333 B.C.E. (E52) had at most duration Battle of Issos maximum duration (E54) has unit (P91) day (E58) has value (P90) 2 (E60) In First Order Logic: P84(x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P84(x,y) ⊃ E54(y)
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E54 Dimensionc
is inverse of
P84 was maximum duration ofop

P84 was maximum duration ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P84i_was_maximum_duration_of

has domain
E54 Dimensionc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P84 had at most durationop

P86 containsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P86i_contains

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P86 falls withinop

P86 falls withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P86_falls_within

Scope note: This property describes the inclusion relationship between two instances of E52 Time-Span. This property supports the notion that a Time-Span’s temporal extent falls within the temporal extent of another Time-Span. It addresses temporal containment only, and no contextual link between the two instances of Time-Span is implied. This property is transitive. Examples: - the time-span of the Apollo 11 moon mission (E52) falls within the time-span of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II (E52) In First Order Logic: P86(x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P86(x,y) ⊃ E52(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E52 Time-Spanc
has range
E52 Time-Spanc
is inverse of
P86 containsop

P87 identifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P87i_identifies

has super-properties
P1 identifiesop
has domain
E44 Place Appellationc
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P87 is identified byop

P87 is identified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P87_is_identified_by

Scope note: This property identifies an E53 Place using an E44 Place Appellation. Examples of Place Appellations used to identify Places include instances of E48 Place Name, addresses, E47 Spatial Coordinates etc. Examples: - the location of the Duke of Wellington's House (E53) is identified by "No 1 London" (E45)
has super-properties
P1 is identified byop
has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E44 Place Appellationc
is inverse of
P87 identifiesop

P89 containsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P89i_contains

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P89 falls withinop

P89 falls withinop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P89_falls_within

Scope note: This property identifies an instance of E53 Place that falls wholly within the extent of another E53 Place. It addresses spatial containment only, and does not imply any relationship between things or phenomena occupying these places. This property is transitive. Examples: - the area covered by the World Heritage Site of Stonehenge (E53) falls within the area of Salisbury Plain (E53) In First Order Logic: P89(x,y) ⊃ E53(x) P89(x,y) ⊃ E53(y)

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E53 Placec
has range
E53 Placec
is inverse of
P89 containsop

P9 consists ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P9_consists_of

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E4 Period with another instance of E4 Period that is defined by a subset of the phenomena that define the former. Therefore the spacetime volume of the latter must fall within the spacetime volume of the former. This property is transitive. Examples: - Cretan Bronze Age (E4) consists of Middle Minoan (E4) In First Order Logic: P9(x,y) ⊃ E4(x) P9(x,y) ⊃ E4(y) P9(x,y) ⊃ P10(y,x)

has characteristics: transitive

has super-properties
P10 containsop
has domain
E4 Periodc
has range
E4 Periodc
is inverse of
P9 forms part ofop

P9 forms part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P9i_forms_part_of

has characteristics: transitive

has domain
E4 Periodc
has range
E4 Periodc
is inverse of
P9 consists ofop

P91 has unitop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P91_has_unit

Scope note: This property shows the type of unit an E54 Dimension was expressed in. Examples: - height of silver cup 232 (E54) has unit mm (E58) In First Order Logic: P91(x,y) ⊃ E54(x) P91(x,y) ⊃ E58(y)
has domain
E54 Dimensionc
has range
E58 Measurement Unitc
is inverse of
P91 is unit ofop

P91 is unit ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P91i_is_unit_of

has domain
E58 Measurement Unitc
has range
E54 Dimensionc
is inverse of
P91 has unitop

P92 brought into existenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P92_brought_into_existence

Scope note: This property allows an E63 Beginning of Existence event to be linked to the E77 Persistent Item brought into existence by it. It allows a "start" to be attached to any Persistent Item being documented i.e. E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation, E51 Contact Point and E55 Type. Examples: - the birth of Mozart (E67) brought into existence Mozart (E21) In First Order Logic: P92(x,y) ⊃ E63(x) P92(x,y) ⊃ E77(y) P92(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)

P92 was brought into existence byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P92i_was_brought_into_existence_by

P93 took out of existenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P93_took_out_of_existence

Scope note: This property allows an E64 End of Existence event to be linked to the E77 Persistent Item taken out of existence by it. In the case of immaterial things, the E64 End of Existence is considered to take place with the destruction of the last physical carrier. This allows an “end” to be attached to any Persistent Item being documented i.e. E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation, E51 Contact Point and E55 Type. For many Persistent Items we know the maximum life-span and can infer, that they must have ended to exist. We assume in that case an End of Existence, which may be as unnoticeable as forgetting the secret knowledge by the last representative of some indigenous nation. Examples: - the death of Mozart (E69) took out of existence Mozart (E21) In First Order Logic: P93 (x,y) ⊃ E64(x) P93 (x,y) ⊃ E77(y) P93(x,y) ⊃ P12(x,y)

P93 was taken out of existence byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P93i_was_taken_out_of_existence_by

P94 has createdop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P94_has_created

Scope note: This property allows a conceptual E65 Creation to be linked to the E28 Conceptual Object created by it. It represents the act of conceiving the intellectual content of the E28 Conceptual Object. It does not represent the act of creating the first physical carrier of the E28 Conceptual Object. As an example, this is the composition of a poem, not its commitment to paper. Examples: - the composition of "The Four Friends" by A. A. Milne (E65) has created "The Four Friends" by A. A. Milne (E28) In First Order Logic: P94(x,y) ⊃ E65(x) P94(x,y) ⊃ E28(y) P94(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)
has super-properties
P92 brought into existenceop
has sub-properties
P135 created typeop
has domain
E65 Creationc
has range
E28 Conceptual Objectc
is inverse of
P94 was created byop

P94 was created byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P94i_was_created_by

has super-properties
P92 was brought into existence byop
has sub-properties
P135 was created byop
has domain
E28 Conceptual Objectc
has range
E65 Creationc
is inverse of
P94 has createdop

P95 has formedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P95_has_formed

Scope note: This property links the founding or E66 Formation for an E74 Group with the Group itself. Examples: - the formation of the CIDOC CRM SIG at the August 2000 CIDOC Board meeting (E66) has formed the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group (E74) In First Order Logic: P95(x,y) ⊃ E66(x) P95(x,y) ⊃ E74(y) P95(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)
has super-properties
P92 brought into existenceop
has domain
E66 Formationc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P95 was formed byop

P95 was formed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P95i_was_formed_by

has super-properties
P92 was brought into existence byop
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E66 Formationc
is inverse of
P95 has formedop

P96 by motherop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P96_by_mother

Scope note: This property links an E67 Birth event to an E21 Person as a participant in the role of birth-giving mother. Note that biological fathers are not necessarily participants in the Birth (see P97 from father (was father for)). The Person being born is linked to the Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born). This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions. This is a sub-property of P11 had participant (participated in). Examples: - the birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67) by mother Queen Mother (E21) In First Order Logic: P96(x,y) ⊃ E67(x) P96(x,y) ⊃ E21(y) P96(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
has domain
E67 Birthc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P96 gave birthop

P96 gave birthop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P96i_gave_birth

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E67 Birthc
is inverse of
P96 by motherop

P97 from fatherop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P97_from_father

Scope note: This property links an E67 Birth event to an E21 Person in the role of biological father. Note that biological fathers are not seen as necessary participants in the Birth, whereas birth-giving mothers are (see P96 by mother (gave birth)). The Person being born is linked to the Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born). This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions. A Birth event is normally (but not always) associated with one biological father. Examples: - King George VI (E21) was father for the birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67) In First Order Logic: P97(x,y) ⊃ E67(x) P97(x,y) ⊃ E21(y)
has domain
E67 Birthc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P97 was father forop

P97 was father forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P97i_was_father_for

has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E67 Birthc
is inverse of
P97 from fatherop

P98 brought into lifeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P98_brought_into_life

Scope note: This property links an E67Birth event to an E21 Person in the role of offspring. Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same Birth event. This is not intended for use with general Natural History material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions. Examples: - the Birth of Queen Elizabeth II (E67) brought into life Queen Elizabeth II (E21) In First Order Logic: P98(x,y) ⊃ E67(x) P98(x,y) ⊃ E21(y) P98(x,y) ⊃ P92(x,y)
has super-properties
P92 brought into existenceop
has domain
E67 Birthc
has range
E21 Personc
is inverse of
P98 was bornop

P98 was bornop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P98i_was_born

has super-properties
P92 was brought into existence byop
has domain
E21 Personc
has range
E67 Birthc
is inverse of
P98 brought into lifeop

P99 dissolvedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P99_dissolved

Scope note: This property links the disbanding or E68 Dissolution of an E74 Group to the Group itself. Examples: - the end of The Hole in the Wall Gang (E68) dissolved The Hole in the Wall Gang (E74) In First Order Logic: P99(x,y) ⊃ E68(x) P99(x,y) ⊃ E74(y) P99(x,y) ⊃ P11(x,y) P99(x,y) ⊃ P93(x,y)
has super-properties
P11 had participantop
P93 took out of existenceop
has domain
E68 Dissolutionc
has range
E74 Groupc
is inverse of
P99 was dissolved byop

P99 was dissolved byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P99i_was_dissolved_by

has super-properties
P11 participated inop
P93 was taken out of existence byop
has domain
E74 Groupc
has range
E68 Dissolutionc
is inverse of
P99 dissolvedop

Data Properties

p168 place is defined bydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P168_place_is_defined_by

Scope note: This property associates an instance of E53 Place with an instance of E94 Space Primitive that defines it. Syntactic variants or use of different scripts may result in multiple instances of E94 Space Primitive defining exactly the same place. Transformations between different reference systems in general result in new definitions of places approximating each other and not in alternative definitions. Note that it is possible for a place to be defined by phenomena causal to it or other forms of identification rather than by an instance of E94 Space Primitive. In this case, this property must not be used for approximating the respective instance of E53 Place with an instance of E94 Space Primitive. In First Order Logic: P168(x,y) ⊃ E53(x) P168(x,y) ⊃ E94(y)
has domain
E53 Placec

P3 has notedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P3_has_note

Scope note: This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that have not been expressed in terms of CRM constructs. In particular it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc. Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P3.1 has type property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g. "construction", "decoration" etc. An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item. Examples: - coffee mug - OXCMS:1983.1.1 (E19) has note "chipped at edge of handle" (E62) has type Condition (E55) In First Order Logic: P3(x,y) ⊃ E1(x) P3(x,y) ⊃ E62(y) P3(x,y,z) ⊃ [P3(x,y) ∧ E55(z)] Properties: P3.1 has type: E55 Type

P57 has number of partsdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P57_has_number_of_parts

Scope note: This property documents the E60 Number of parts of which an instance of E19 Physical Object is composed. This may be used as a method of checking inventory counts with regard to aggregate or collective objects. What constitutes a part or component depends on the context and requirements of the documentation. Normally, the parts documented in this way would not be considered as worthy of individual attention. For a more complete description, objects may be decomposed into their components and constituents using P46 is composed of (forms parts of) and P45 consists of (is incorporated in). This allows each element to be described individually. Examples: - chess set 233 (E22) has number of parts 33 (E60) In First Order Logic: P57(x,y) ⊃ E19(x) P57(x,y) ⊃ E60(y)

P79 beginning is qualified bydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P79_beginning_is_qualified_by

Scope note: This property qualifies the beginning of an E52 Time-Span in some way. The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc. Examples: - the time-span of the Holocene (E52) beginning is qualified by approximately (E62) In First Order Logic: P79 (x,y) ⊃ E52 (x) P79 (x,y) ⊃ E62(y) P79(x,y) ⊃ P3(x,y)
has super-properties
P3 has notedp
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc

P80 end is qualified bydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P80_end_is_qualified_by

Scope note: This property qualifies the end of an E52 Time-Span in some way. The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc. Examples: - the time-span of the Holocene (E52) end is qualified by approximately (E62) In First Order Logic: P80(x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P80(x,y) ⊃ E62(y) P80(x,y) ⊃ P3(x,y)
has super-properties
P3 has notedp
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc

P81 ongoing throughoutdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P81_ongoing_throughout

Scope note: This property describes the minimum period of time covered by an E52 Time-Span. Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s minimum temporal extent (i.e. its inner boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed. Examples: - the time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) ongoing throughout 1996-2002 (E61) In First Order Logic: P81 (x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P81 (x,y) ⊃ E61(y)
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc

P82 at some time withindp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P82_at_some_time_within

Scope note: This property describes the maximum period of time within which an E52 Time-Span falls. Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span’s maximum temporal extent (i.e. its outer boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed. Examples: - the time-span of the development of the CIDOC CRM (E52) at some time within 1992-infinity (E61) In First Order Logic: P82 (x,y) ⊃ E52(x) P82 (x,y) ⊃ E61(y)
has domain
E52 Time-Spanc

P90 has valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/P90_has_value

Scope note: This property allows an E54 Dimension to be approximated by an E60 Number primitive. Examples: - height of silver cup 232 (E54) has value 226 (E60) In First Order Logic: P90(x,y) ⊃ E54(x) P90(x,y) ⊃ E60(y)
has domain
E54 Dimensionc

Annotation Properties

notationap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#notation

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
skos
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.