IRI:
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Current version:
TODO: simplify {Interrogative,Indefinite,...}/{Cardinal,Multiplicative,...}Quantifier dichothomies In subsequent versions, however, orthographical definitions should be handled with existing ontologies specializing on the description on language, e.g., lexvo check gerundive vs. gerund update GOLD linking
Imported Ontologies:
http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl (visualise it with LODE)
http://purl.org/olia/system.owl (visualise it with LODE)
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

OLiA Reference Model for Morphology, Morphosyntax and Syntax (originally based on the EAGLES recommendations, with modifications in accordance to DCR (ISOcat, June 2013), TDS ontology, GOLD v.03, the SFB 632 annotation guidelines, the MULTEXT-East ontology and various annotation schemes)

Table of Content

  1. Classes
  2. Object Properties
  3. Annotation Properties
  4. Namespace Declarations

Classes

abbreviated pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbbreviatedPronoun

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Pronominal
Abbreviation/Syntactic_Type="pronominal" (Romanian), e.g., d-ta/dumneata, d-tale/dumitale, d-voastră/dumneavoastră, dv./dumneavoastră, dvs./dumneavoastră (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Pronominal)
has super-classes
abbreviationc
pronounc

abbreviationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Abbreviation

Current version:
EAGLES Category Abbreviations with Type="Abbreviation".
Abbreviation (from Latin brevis "short") is strictly speaking a shorter form of a word, but more particularly, an abbreviation is a letter or group of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the sake of brevity. For example, the word "abbreviation" can be abbreviated as "abbr." or "abbrev." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation 19.09.06)
has super-classes
residualc
has sub-classes
abbreviated pronounc, initialismc

abessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbessiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1223
AbessiveCase expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition 'without' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3,35; Gove, et al. 1966: 3). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

abilitative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbilitativeModality

Current version:
Adopted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#AbilitativeMood
modality expressed by AbilitativeMood: Abilitative is a mood that indicates ability, comparable to the use of "can" in English. (http://zbb.spinnwebe.com/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=34901)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
abilitative moodc, mental abilitive modalityc, physical abilitive modalityc

abilitative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbilitativeMood

Current version:
Adopted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#AbilitativeMood
Abilitative is a mood that indicates ability, comparable to the use of "can" in English. (http://zbb.spinnwebe.com/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=34901)
has super-classes
mood featurec
abilitative modalityc

ablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AblativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Ablative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1224
Case used to indicate locative or instrumental function. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1224) AblativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Ablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

absolute tensec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbsoluteTense

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteTense
Absolute tense refers to a time in relation to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisabsolutetense.htm")
has super-classes
tense featurec
has sub-classes
Perfectc, close futurec, futurec, pastc, pre hodiernal pastc, presentc

absolute-relative tensec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbsoluteRelativeTense

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteRelativeTense
Absolute-relative tense is a tense that (i) refers to a time in relation to a temporal reference point that, in turn, is referred to in relation to the moment of utterance (ii) in which the time and the reference point are not identical, and (iii) the reference point and the moment of utterance are not identical. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteRelativeTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisabsoluterelativetense.htm)
has super-classes
tense featurec
has sub-classes
Past perfectc, future in futurec, future in pastc, past in futurec, pluperfect tensec

absolutive antipassivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbsolutiveAntipassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveAntipassive
An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is suppressed or overtly absent. (Klaiman 1991:232) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveAntipassive)
has super-classes
antipassivec

absolutive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AbsolutiveCase

Current version:
TDS Ontology, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1225
Absolutive case marks the first argument of an intransitive verb and the second argument of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absolutiveCase)
has super-classes
case featurec

accusativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Accusative

Current version:
EAGLES
In nominative-accusative languages, accusative case marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsAccusativeCase.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
case featurec

acronymc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Acronym

Current version:
EAGLES category Residual with Type="Acronym".
An acronym is an abbreviation, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. Acronyms are used most often to abbreviate names of organizations and long or frequently referenced terms. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acronym 19.09.06)
has super-classes
residualc

actional forcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ActionalModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
ActionalForce indicates that the speaker or hearer is to undertake some action. Actional force subsumes Imperative, Commissive and Hortatory force.
has super-classes
mood featurec
has sub-classes
commissive forcec, hortative forcec, imperative modalityc

active voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ActiveVoice

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#activeVoice
When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_voice 17.11.06) Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity (McIntosh 1984:108). Refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis: Diathesis=D0:(X=SUBabs/nom) (Y=DIROBacc) (Shibatani 1995:7) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Active)
has super-classes
voice featurec
has sub-classes
anticausativec, causativec, direct voicec

actor macro rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ActorMacroRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#actorRole
The most agentive semantic role of the current clause (van Valin and Lapolla 1997), designated subject (from a semantic point of view)
has super-classes
semantic rolec
has sub-classes
agent rolec, force rolec, positioner rolec

addressee rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AddresseeRole

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB vocative, Bies et al. 1995
-VOC (vocative) — marks nouns of address, regardless of their position in the sentence. It is not coindexed to the subject and does not get -TPC when it is sentence-initial. (SQ (NP-VOC Mike) , would (NP-SBJ you) (INTJ please) (VP close (NP the door)) ?) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

adessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdessiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1228
AdessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location near/at which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'at' or 'near' (Crystal 1997: 8). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

aditive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AditiveCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1229
Case expressing "to" in Basque studies. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1229)
has super-classes
case featurec

adjectivalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adjectival

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Adjectival
In MULTEXT-East a characteristic of attributive pronouns and abbreviated adjectives, e.g., in Ukrainian e.g., абичий/= бозна-чий/= будь-чий/= дечий/= хтозна-чий/= чий-будь/= чий-небудь/= чийсь/=, абичийого/абичий аби до чийого/абичий бозна-чийого/бозна-чий будь-чийого/будь-чий дечийого/дечий хтозна-чийого/хтозна-чий чийого-будь/чий-будь чийого-небудь/чий-небудь чийогось/чийсь, абичийого/абичий бозна-чийого/бозна-чий будь-чийого/будь-чий дечийого/дечий хтозна-чийого/хтозна-чий чийого-будь/чий-будь чийого-небудь/чий-небудь чийогось/чийсь, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий абичиїм/абичий аби на чийому/абичий аби на чиєму/абичий аби на чиїм/абичий бозна на чийому/бозна-чий бозна на чиєму/бозна-чий бозна на чиїм/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий будь-чиїм/будь-чий будь на чийому/будь-чий будь на чиєму/будь-чий будь на чиїм/будь-чий дечийому/дечий дечиєму/дечий дечиїм/дечий де на чийому/дечий де на чиєму/дечий, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий бозна-чийому/бозна-чий бозна-чиєму/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий дечийому/дечий дечиєму/дечий хтозна-чийому/хтозна-чий хтозна-чиєму/хтозна-чий чийому-будь/чий-будь чиєму-будь/чий-будь чийому-небудь/чий-небудь чиєму-небудь/чий-небудь чийомусь/чийсь чиємусь/чийсь, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий бозна-чийому/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий дечийому/дечий хтозна-чийому/хтозна-чий чийому-будь/чий-будь чийому-небудь/чий-небудь чийомусь/чийсь, абичию/абичий бозна-чию/бозна-чий будь-чию/будь-чий дечию/дечий хтозна-чию/хтозна-чий чию-будь/чий-будь чию-небудь/чий-небудь чиюсь/чийсь, абичия/абичий бозна-чия/бозна-чий будь-чия/будь-чий дечия/дечий хтозна-чия/хтозна-чий чия-будь/чий-будь чия-небудь/чий-небудь чиясь/чийсь, абичиє/абичий бозна-чиє/бозна-чий будь-чиє/будь-чий дечиє/дечий хтозна-чиє/хтозна-чий чиє-будь/чий-будь чиє-небудь/чий-небудь чиєсь/чийсь (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Adjectival)
has super-classes
syntactic functionc

adjectival adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdjectivalAdverb

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectivalAdverb
An adjectival adverb is an adverb that is formally identical to an adjective.<br/> MULTEXT-East Adverb/Type="adjectival" (Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian)<br/> Bulgarian AdjectivalAdverbs have the same form as adjectives in Gender = neuter, Person = 3, Number = singular. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectivalAdverb)
has super-classes
adverbc

adjectival modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdjectivalModifier

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adjectivalModifier
A nominal is modified by an adjective. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adjectivalModifier)
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

adjectival particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdjectivalParticle

Current version:
adopted from the EMILLE Urdu tagset (Hardie 2003, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#AdjectivalParticle)
Particle that serves to form adjective phrases, e.g., Urdu sā (http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#AdjectivalParticle)
has super-classes
particlec

adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adjective

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Adjective (AJ).
An Adjective is a noun-modifying expression that specifies the properties or attributes of the nominal referent. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAdjective.htm 18.9.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
Substantive adjectivec, attributive adjectivec, characteristic adjectivec, ordinal adjectivec, participle adjectivec, periodic adjectivec, possessive adjectivec, predicative adjectivec, qualifier adjectivec, relational adjectivec, relative adjectivec

adjective phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdjectivePhrase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjectivePhrase
AdjectivePhrase is the class of phrases that have adjectives as heads. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjectivePhrase)
has super-classes
phrasec
has sub-classes
w h adjective phrasec

adjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adjunction

Current version:
PTB Bracketing Guidelines, Santorini (1991)
The term \adjunction structure" refers to structures which would be represented by tree diagrams of the general form in (@9). The de ning characteristic of adjunction structures is that a node X dominates another instance of X. (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
syntactic constructionc
has sub-classes
appositionc

adjutative voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdjutativeVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice for a construction where the subject of the verb is not an agent of the action denoted by the verb but is assisting an unstated agent in performing the action
has super-classes
voice featurec

admonitive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdmonitiveModality

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#admonitiveModality
Expression of warning (Bybee 1985:22) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#admonitiveModality)
has super-classes
modality featurec

adpositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adposition

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Adposition (AP).
An adposition is a cover term for prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions. It expresses a grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAdposition.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adposition 19.09.06) The majority of cases of adpositions we have to consider in European languages are prepositions. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#SECTION00062200000000000000 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
circumpositionc, postpositionc, prepositionc

adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adverb

Current version:
TODO: currently, different criteria are employed to characterize Adverbs, including lexical criteria (e.g., AdjectivalAdverb) and semantic criteria (e.g., CausalAdverb). The subclassification according to semantic criteria is to be expressed with hasSemanticRole, the classes are thus deprecated.
An adverb is a part of speech that serves to modify non-nominal parts of speech, i.e., verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverbs 18.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
adjectival adverbc, adverbial participlec, causal adverbc, degree adverbc, location adverbc, manner adverbc, modality marking adverbc, modifier adverbc, negative adverbc, particle adverbc, prepositional adverbc, pronominal adverbc, verbal adverbc, w h type adverbsc

adverb phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdverbPhrase

An adverb phrase may consist of an adverb, or a sequence of words in which an adverb is the head of the phrase. Adverb phrases may function as adverbials, as in 41: (41) [NP Her beautiful white hat NP] [VP was [ADVP very nearly ADVP] ruined VP] or as modifiers of adjectives, as in 42: (42) [NP Il NP] [VP parle [ADVP infiniment plus couramment ADVP] VP] or noun phrases, as in 43: (43) [NP They NP] [VP let [NP me NP] [VP speak VP] [ADVP now and then ADVP] VP] or as the complement of a preposition, as in 44: (44) [ADVP Strangely enough ADVP] , [NP we NP] [VP received [NP a reply NP] [NP the next day NP] VP] Other examples: (45) [NP The book NP] [VP is [ADVP right here ADVP] VP] (46) [ADVP Como [NP resultado [PP de [NP esa trama NP] PP] NP] ADVP] [VP no se lleva [PP a cabo PP] [NP ninguna acción NP] VP] (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node35.html)
has super-classes
phrasec
has sub-classes
w h adverb phrasec

adverbialc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Adverbial

Current version:
Bies et al. 1995
-ADV (adverbial) — marks a constituent other than ADVP or PP when it is used adverbially (e.g., NPs or free (“headless”) relatives). However, constituents that themselves are modifying an ADVP generally do not get -ADV. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
syntactic functionc

adverbial modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdverbialModifier

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adverbialModifier
An adverbial modifier modifies a verb. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adverbialModifier)
has super-classes
modifierc

adverbial participlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdverbialParticiple

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdverbialParticiple
Adverb/Type="participle" is used in the Slovene MTE v4 specs, e.g., 'leže' / lying. Slovenian adverbial participles are, however, not attested for Resian. (MTE v4)(http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdverbialParticiple)
has super-classes
adverbc
participlec

adverbial subordinate clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdverbialSubordinateClause

Current version:
added in conformance with the SFB632 Annotation Guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)
Subordinate clauses with adverbial function are annotated as ADV, e.g. "Tom sleeps when the sun rises." (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.6)
has super-classes
subordinate clausec

affixc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Affix

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1234
Letter or group of letters which are added to a word to make a new word. (Sue Ellen Wright; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1234)
has super-classes
morphemec
has sub-classes
infixc, prefixc, suffixc

affixed personal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AffixedPersonalPronoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2221, modelled as a subClassOf PersonalPronoun, clitic pronouns are weak personal pronouns
Personnal pronoun that is affixed. (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2221)
has super-classes
irreflexive personal pronounc

agent deletion passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AgentDeletionPassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AgentDeletionPassive
The object of the active retains its old case-marking in the passive, the subject of the active cannot appear in the passive clause, and the passive tends to be semantically active. (Givon 1988:419) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AgentDeletionPassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

agent rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AgentRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#agentRole
An agentive role is one in which the actor exerts some degree of will(-power) in the execution of the event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#agentRole)
has super-classes
actor macro rolec

agentive verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AgentiveVerb

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010)
An agentive verb marks the semantic role of agent or the doer of an action. Example: ་ ་ ས་ ་ ་ བསད་ ག། Dorji-gi jele sänu 'Dorji killed the cat' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
main verbc

allative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AllativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Allative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1236
AllativeCase expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6,9,216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213; Gove, et al. 1966: 55,2359). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Allative)
has super-classes
case featurec

allusive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AllusivePronoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2223
pronoun that have reference to something characterized by allusions. (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2223) an invariable pronoun expressing a specific intention by means of unclear term (Khemakhem Aida, 2010-05-10 via isocat-morpho@loria.fr) examples from Arabic (Monica Monachini 2010-05-06 via isocat-morpho@loria.fr): "kam nahaituhu" (how often I forbade him, Hans Wehr), "baas Saar `amra `ashr isniin, gam (= kam) yriid paysikil" (He just turned ten, and here [how] he wants a bicycle, Georgetown University Iraqi Arabic-English Dictionary), "gam (= kam) yurguS imnil-faraH" ([how] he jumped for joy, Georgetown University Iraqi Arabic-English Dictionary)
has super-classes
pronounc

animatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Animate

Current version:
subClassOf animacy (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Perceived as alive. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1911)
has super-classes
animacy featurec
has sub-classes
humanc

animate genderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AnimateGender

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Animate
One of the two grammatical genders, or classes of nouns, the other being inanimate. Membership in the animate grammatical class is largely based on meanings, in that living things, including humans, animals, spirits, trees, and most plants are included in the animate class of nouns (Valentine 2001: 114). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Animate)
has super-classes
gender featurec

anti causative voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AntiCausativeVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive [Siewierska 1988: 267].
has super-classes
voice featurec

anticausativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Anticausative

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Anticausative This is a semantic manipulation of the verb frame (and thus limited to a specific semantic class of verbs) rather than a grammatical device for the manipulation of argument structure, therefore classified as Active here.
An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive. (Siewierska 1988:267) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Anticausative)
has super-classes
active voicec

antipassivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Antipassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Antipassive
Derives an intransitive verb from a transitive stem whereby the original agent (only) is cross-referrenced by the absolutive markers on the verb and the original patient, if it appears, is in an oblique phrase. (England 1983:110) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Antipassive)
has super-classes
voice featurec
has sub-classes
absolutive antipassivec, focus antipassivec, incorporating antipassivec, nonabsolutive antipassivec, referential voicec

aoristc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Aorist

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1240
Simple past tense that is predominantly used for narration. Both the perfective and the imperfective forms can be used in the aorist without any restrictions. (www.helsinki.fi/~bontchev/grammar/index.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1240)
has super-classes
pastc

apocopec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Apocope

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2254
deletion of the final element in a word (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2254)
has super-classes
phonological processc

applicative voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ApplicativeVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the core patient argument and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb
has super-classes
voice featurec

appositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Apposition

Current version:
added in accordance with TIGER, definition according to PTB Bracketing Guidelines (Santorini 1991)
Apposition is a relation between two phrases: (1) the nucleus phrase and (2) an appositive phrase, generally set o by punctuation, which modi es the nucleus phrase. An example of apposition is given in (@11). (11) Ryukichi Imai, Japan’s ambassador to Mexico, agrees that Mexico may be too eager. Here, Ryukichi Imai is the nucleus phrase, and the phrase enclosed in commas, Japan’s ambassador to Mexico, is the appositive. Instances of apposition should be represented as adjunction structures (see Section 3.1). (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
adjunctionc

approximate numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ApproximateNumeral

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ApproximateNumeral
Bulgarian has Numeral/Form=approx(a), used for approximate numerals (десетина /about a ten/, стотина /about a hundred/) (Dimitrova et al. 2009, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ApproximateNumeral)
has super-classes
numeralc

arbitrary controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ArbitraryControl

Current version:
http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#ArbitraryControl
Indicates either the subject or object of the main clause may be the omitted argument of the subclause (http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#ArbitraryControl)
has super-classes
controlc

articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Article

Current version:
EAGLE top-level category "Article" (AT): In Eagles articles are subsumed under determiners and kept as a separate class. It is a sub-class of determiners which is disjoint with the other determiner classes. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recn 18.09.06) Modelled here as sub-class of Determiner because of its syntactic function.
An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or indefinite reference, and the new or given status. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnArticle.htm 02.05.07)
has super-classes
determinerc
has sub-classes
definite articlec, fused prep artc, indefinite articlec, nonspecific articlec, partitive articlec, possessive articlec, specific articlec

aspect featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#AspectFeature

has super-classes
has aspectop
has sub-classes
cessativec, completivec, continuous aspectc, durative aspectc, dynamic aspectc, frequentive aspectc, habitual aspectc, imperfective aspectc, inceptive aspectc, inchoativec, iterative aspectc, perfective aspectc, phasal aspectc, point of view aspectc, progressive aspectc, purposive aspectc, quantificational aspectc, relevance aspectc, semelfactive aspectc, simple aspectc, terminative aspectc, unaccomplishedc
is in range of
has aspectop

aspect marking auxiliaryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AspectMarkingAuxiliary

Current version:
adopted from Sajjad (2007) for Urdu, cf. http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#AspectualAuxiliary
An auxiliary that marks exclusively aspect, e.g., in Urdu: Auxiliaries: Based on the syntactic nature of Urdu, auxiliaries are divided into two categories. Aspectual auxiliaries always occur after main verb of the sentence. Tense auxiliaries are used to show the time of the action. They occurred at the end of the verb phrase (Sajjad 2007). E.g., Urdu rahā, an auxiliary element is used to mark the durative aspect. (Hardie 2004, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#RahaAuxiliary)
has super-classes
strict auxiliary verbc

aspect particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AspectParticle

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AspectParticle
In the Romanian MULTEXT-East scheme, a verbal particle with Particle/Type="aspect" modifies the verbs and carries information on the verb form, i.e., on its aspect (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AspectParticle)
has super-classes
verbal particlec

aspirational verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AspirationalVerb

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#AspirationalVerb)
It is a verb, which indicates a strong desire to achieve something, without the doer. དག་པ ་ ང་ ་ ་བར་ ག། dag-pai zhing-lu kewa shÔ 'May i be born in pure land' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
main verbc

atransitivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Atransitive

Current version:
Chiarcos
A predicate/verb that takes no argument. English "to rain" is semantically atransitive, hence, an expletive is to be used in "it's raining", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).
has super-classes
valency featurec

attributive adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AttributiveAdjective

Current version:
EAGLES Adjective with Use="Attributive".
An attributive adjective is an adjective that qualifies or modifies a noun and that precedes the noun, e.g."a delicious apple", "a short letter". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective 18.09.06)
has super-classes
adjectivec

attributive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AttributivePronoun

Current version:
In languages with grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are determiners. In languages without grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are described as adjectives. In order to provide a uniform modeling of attributive pronouns, they are defined here as being the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. Note that this entails that the definition of "Determiner" is broadened to include determiner-like elements in languages without grammatical determiners. (Chiarcos)
An attributive pronoun is a pronoun that modifies an NP.
is equivalent to
determinerc and pronounc
has super-classes
determinerc
pronounc
has sub-classes
demonstrative determinerc, possessive determinerc

augmentativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Augmentative

Current version:
modelled as a derivational process analoguously to Diminuitive
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A special form of a noun that signals that the object being referred to is large relative to the usual size of such an object [Crystal 1980: 34].
has super-classes
derivationc

auxiliary verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AuxiliaryVerb

Current version:
EAGLES Verbs with Status="Auxiliary", http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244
An auxiliary verb is a verb which accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase, and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense aspect, and voice. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm 19.09.06) Besides modal verbs ("semiauxiliary") and "strict" auxiliary verbs, also copulas are classified under auxiliary verbs here, as this is a praxis applied in practically every EAGLES-conformant morphosyntactic annotation scheme. Part of speech referring to the set of verbs, subordinate to the main lexical verb which help to make distinction in mood, aspect, voice etc. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244)
has super-classes
verbc
has sub-classes
copulac, fused pronoun auxiliaryc, modal verbc, strict auxiliary verbc

aversive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AversiveCase

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
AversiveCase expresses fear or is literally translated as 'turning from' in some languages [Blake 2001: 156].
has super-classes
case featurec

basec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Stem

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1389
Root of a word, together with any derivational affixes, to which inflectional affixes are added. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAStem.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1389)
has super-classes
morphemec

base formc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BaseForm

Current version:
SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)
Strong inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens. In traditional English tagsets, e.g., SUSANNE or the PennTreeBank tagset, surface ambiguities are normally not resolved. Uninflected forms and forms that have the same form (e.g., "be" as an imperative) are tagged as BaseForm. (Ch. Chiarcos) Since it is impractical (...) to resolve automatically the ambiguity of these six morphological functions, it is a common practice to assign a single value to the base form, or else to assign two values, one for the finite and one for the non-finite functions. Because of this, the tables below show two tagsets: one tagset representing the 6 attribute-values above, and a reduced tagset (`RTags'), which resembles most tagsets so far used for the English language in reducing the six values to two. http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/morphsyn/node150.html#SECTION00054000000000000000 BaseForm is not a characteristic of lexemes, but specific to certain forms in a complex paradigm.
has super-classes
inflection type featurec

bec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BeAuxiliary

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Verb used to link the subject of a sentence and its noun or adjective complement or complementing phrase in certain languages. This verb could be used also to form the passive voice. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=be -> 4); http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1246)
has super-classes
strict auxiliary verbc

bench-level registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BenchLevelRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Register of terms used in applications-oriented as opposed to theoretical or academic levels of language. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1989)
has super-classes
register featurec

benefactive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BenefactiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Benefactive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1247
BenefactiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause (Crystal 1980: 43; Gove, et al. 1966: 203). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Benefactive)
has super-classes
case featurec

benefactor rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BenefactorRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#beneficiaryRole
A beneficiary (benefactor) instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who stands to benefit in some way from the event. Prototypically “benefit” here means “to do or be good to, to be of advantage or profit to; to improve, help forward” in some way. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#beneficiaryRole)
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

boundc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BoundClitic

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933 (bound as value of cliticness http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933), originally from MULTEXT-East, see http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#BoundClitic, but note that as it is used in MULTEXT-East, BoundClitic is ambiguous between "being" a bound clitic and "containing a bound clitic". Here, only the first aspect is preserved, is is thus a subclass of CliticElement.
Linked to a particular element. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933)
has super-classes
cliticnessc

broken pluralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#BrokenPlural

Current version:
subClassOf plural (dcif:isA)
Internal plural that do not have any inflection. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2218)
has super-classes
pluralc

bulletc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Bullet

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438
Sign used to mark an item in a list. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438)
has super-classes
layout elementc

cardinal numberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CardinalNumber

Current version:
EAGLES Numeral with Type="Cardinal".
A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are considered basic in form, used in counting, and used in expressing how many objects are referred to. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACardinalNumeral.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
numeralc

case featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#CaseFeature

Current version:
Skipped EAGLES case feature values Uninflected (uninformative), and NonGenitive (= complement of Genitive). As for TDS case feature values, only "grammaticalCase" has been adopted. As for GOLD case feature values, everything has been adopted, although it seems that some of these cases are actually semantic (theta) roles, i.e., "case" in the sense of Fillmore (1966), e.g., BenefactiveCase.
has super-classes
has caseop
has sub-classes
abessive casec, ablative casec, absolutive casec, accusativec, adessive casec, aditive casec, allative casec, aversive casec, benefactive casec, causative casec, comitative casec, contablative casec, contallative casec, conterminative casec, contlative casec, dative casec, delative casec, direct casec, distributive casec, elative casec, equative casec, ergative casec, essive casec, essive formal casec, factive casec, formal casec, genitive casec, illative casec, inablative casec, inallative casec, inessive casec, instrumental casec, interablative casec, interallative casec, interessive casec, interlative casec, interminative casec, interterminative casec, intertranslative casec, intranslative casec, lative casec, locational casec, locative casec, malefactive casec, multiplicative casec, nominativec, objective casec, oblique casec, partitive casec, perlative casec, possessed casec, prepositional casec, prolative casec, proprietive casec, purposive casec, sociative casec, subablative casec, suballative casec, subessive casec, sublative casec, subterminative casec, subtranslative casec, superablative casec, superallative casec, superessive casec, superlative casec, superterminative casec, supertranslative casec, temporalis casec, terminative casec, translative casec, vocative casec
is in range of
has caseop

case markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CaseMarker

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010). If its tradition of grammar description is influenced by the Indian, these case markers are variously described as case morphemes or as postpositions. Therefore introduced as a shorthand for Adposition or MorphologicalParticle
has super-classes
uniquec
adpositionc or morphological particlec

categorical modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EpistemicNecessityModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
EpistemicNecessityModality indicates that the expressed proposition is known to be true. Also known as CategoricalModality [Palmer 2001: 37, 68-69].
has super-classes
modality featurec

causal adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CausalAdverb

Current version:
DEPRECATED: equivalent to Adverb and hasSemanticRole some CauseRole
Adverb/Type="causal" is used in the Hungarian MTE v4, but no examples are provided. (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CausalAdverb)
is equivalent to
adverbc and (has semantic roleop some cause rolec)
has super-classes
adverbc

causal modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CausalModality

Current version:
Nowak (1996)
In Inuktitut, causality is expressed by verbal inflection. Causal mood signifies causal relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
causal moodc

causal moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CausalMood

Current version:
Nowak (1996)
In Inuktitut, causality is expressed by verbal inflection. Causal mood signifies causal relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
has super-classes
mood featurec
causal modalityc

causativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Causative

Current version:
TODO: rename to CausativeVoice
Expressing the causation of an action. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Causative)
has super-classes
active voicec

causative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CausativeCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1253
Case which expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1253)
has super-classes
case featurec

causative voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CausativeVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice where the subject causes someone or something else to do or be something
has super-classes
voice featurec

cause rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CauseRole

Current version:
added in conformance with the SFB632 Annotation Guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)
Cause indicates the reason why something happens and is often expressed by a PP (because of, with, through etc.). Sometimes this role is close to the role of Instrument. The criterion for the choice of tag CAUSE is if the expression can be paraphrased through a clausal subordinate clause. (Dipper et al. 2007, 5.3.10)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

cessativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CessativeAspect

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2001
Aspect that expresses the cessation of an event or state. (SIL; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2001)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

characterc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Character

has super-classes
orthographic entityc
has sub-classes
graphical separatorc, letterc

characteristic adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CharacteristicAdjective

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#CharacteristicAdjective)
It is an adjective, which expresses the character and feature of subject or an object, while modifying a noun. ང་འ ་ ང ་ འ ག། Shing-di rim du 'The tree is tall' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
adjectivec

circumpositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Circumposition

Current version:
EAGLES adposition with optional attribute Type="Circumposition". The relationship between circumpositions and pre-/postpositions in EAGLES is not clear. We do not prohibit Circumpositions from being Prepositions or Postpositions, though the EAGLES feature assignment (with all optional values implemented) would possibly rule this out. (Chiarcos)
A circumposition is an adposition with a part before the noun phrase and a part after. It is much less common than prepositions or postpositions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumposition 19.09.06)
has super-classes
adpositionc

circumstantial voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CircumstantialVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the role of subject
has super-classes
voice featurec

classifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Classifier

Current version:
Added for compatibility with the SFB632 annotation guidelines.
A classifier is a word or affix that expresses the classification of a noun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAClassifier.htm 19.09.06) Classifiers are a very typical feature of sign languages. In some Asian languages, classifiers are used as particles to combine a noun with a numeral, e.g. chin. _san ge ren_ 'three pieces of people', 'three people' (Bußmann 2002, under Klassifikator) Bharati et al. (2006, for Indian languages) group Classifiers together with Quantifiers and Numerals, but they do not provide a detailed characterization of this class. Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf
has super-classes
uniquec

clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Clause

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause
Clause is the class of constructions that form minimal sentential units. They must include a predicate, all arguments of the predicate, and all modifiers of the predicate and the arguments. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause)
has super-classes
constituentc
has sub-classes
finite clausec, non finite embedded constructionc

clitic definite determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CliticDefiniteArticle

Current version:
cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDistalDeterminer
clitic definite determiner, e.g., in Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Romanian (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDeterminerType)
has super-classes
cliticnessc
definite articlec

clitic specific articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CliticSpecificArticle

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer
Persian does have an article, but it marks specificity rather than definiteness. The Persian article is similar to the Balkan one (a clitic of pronominal origin that's written together with the word), except that it isn't exactly definite (you can even see it described as an indefinite article). (Ivan A. Derzhanski, p.c. 2010/06/18)
has super-classes
cliticnessc
specific articlec

cliticizationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Cliticization

Current version:
http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Cliticization; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness. Note that Cliticization covers only one aspect of the original MULTEXT-East (and ISOcat) definitions of cliticness, i.e., that an element is a clitic
In morphosyntax, cliticization is a process by which a complex word is formed by attaching a clitic to a fully inflected word. Exsmple: In Je t'aime, t' is the clitic attached to aime. (http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Cliticization) Note that cliticization can also be understood as the process of an independent word developing into a clitic. This is not the meaning intended here, as the OLiA ontologies are currently not applied to the description of diachronic processes. (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
morphological processc
has sub-classes
element with cliticc, element without cliticc

cliticnessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Clitic

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness
Categorization of the different types of clitics (MultText-East; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903)
is equivalent to
cliticnessc
has super-classes
morphemec

cliticnessc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CliticElement

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness
Note that Clitic covers only one aspect of the original MULTEXT-East (and ISOcat) definitions of cliticness, i.e., that an element is a clitic
has super-classes
morphemec
has sub-classes
boundc, clitic definite determinerc, clitic specific articlec

close angle bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseAngleBracket

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991
> *RAB* Right angle bracket (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
right parenthetical punctuationc

close bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseBracket

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2083
Punctuation that is graphically represented by ] (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2083)
has super-classes
right parenthetical punctuationc

close curly bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseCurlyBracket

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2085
Punctuation that is graphically represented by } (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2085)
has super-classes
right parenthetical punctuationc

close futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CloseFuture, classified as AbsoluteTense here
Adopted from GOLD. No definition given.
has super-classes
absolute tensec

close parenthesisc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseParenthesis

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1440
End of a parenthesis pair. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1440)
has super-classes
right parenthetical punctuationc

close quotec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseQuote

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#CloseQuotationMark
quotation mark, closing
has super-classes
quotec

close square bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CloseSquareBracket

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991
] *RSB* Right square bracket (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
right parenthetical punctuationc

clusivity featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#ClusivityFeature

has super-classes
has clusivityop
has sub-classes
exclusivec, inclusivec
is in range of
has clusivityop

collectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Collective

Current version:
Normally realized by derivation rather than inflection, unless other evidence is provided, OLiA follows *both* the modelling of EAGLES (Collective rdf:type Number) and the modelling of the MTE ontology (Collective rdf:type MorphologicalDerivation, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Collective)
A collective number is a number referring to 'a set of things'. Languages that have this feature can use it to get a phrase like 'flock of sheeps' by using 'sheep' in collective number. (en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_number; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1254)
has super-classes
number featurec
derivationc

collective numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CollectiveNumeral

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral
Numeral/Type="collect" (Romanian)<br/> In traditional Romanian grammars, expressions like amândoi "both", toţi trei "all three" are referred to as collective numerals. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)
has super-classes
numeralc

collective pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CollectivePronoun

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A pronoun that refers to all elements of a set.
has super-classes
pronounc

collocationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Collocation

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Collocation
A collocation is any habitually linked group of words - a kind of lexical partnership, e.g. 'fish and chips', 'salt and pepper', 'don't mention it', 'it's nothing...', 'Oh well!', 'bangers and mash'... and so on. Many idioms or idiomatic phrases exhibit collocation, e.g. in a jiffy. (http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/grammar/main_files/definitionsa-m.htm)
has super-classes
semantic unitc
has sub-classes
fixed expressionc

colonc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Colon

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1439
Sign with two vertical points that is used in writing and printing to introduce an explanation, example or quotation. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1439)
has super-classes
sentence medial punctuationc

comitative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ComitativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1255
ComitativeCase expresses accompaniment. It carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' (Anderson, Stephen 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42;Dixon, R. 1972: 12; Gove, et al. 1966: 455). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative)
has super-classes
case featurec

comitative rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ComitativeRole

Current version:
added in conformance with TIGER edge labels, this is explicitly not defined as a grammatical case
Comitative carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' (Anderson, Stephen 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42;Dixon, R. 1972: 12; Gove, et al. 1966: 455). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative) Comitative applies to an animate entity that accompanies a participant of the action. (Dipper et al. 2007, §5.3.12)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

commac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Comma

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1448
Mark (,) used in writing to show a short pause or to separate items in a list. (Longman DCE 2005; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1448)
has super-classes
sentence medial punctuationc

commissive forcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CommissiveModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
CommissiveForce indicates that the speaker promises or threatens to perform some action [Palmer 2001: 10, 72].
has super-classes
actional forcec

common genderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CommonGender

Current version:
EAGLES
Common is an optional attribute for nouns in EAGLES. The Common gender contrasts with Neuter in a two-gender system e.g. Danish, Dutch. This value is also used for articles, pronouns and determiners especially for Danish. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2at 17.11.06)
has super-classes
gender featurec

common nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CommonNoun

Current version:
EAGLES Noun with Type="Common".
A common noun is a noun that signifies a non-specific member of a group. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACommonNoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
nounc
has sub-classes
elative nounc, honorific common nounc, intensive nounc, once nounc, relation nounc, spatio-temporal nounc, title nounc, unit nounc, verbal nounc

commonly usedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CommonlyUsed

Current version:
subClassOf frequency (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Said of a term that appears frequently. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1984)
has super-classes
possiblec

comparativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Comparative

Current version:
EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1421
The comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another. In English the structure of a comparative consists normally of the positive form of the adjective or adverb, plus the suffix -er, or (especially in the case of longer words) the modifier "more" (or "less") before the adjective or adverb. The form is usually completed by "than" and the noun which is being compared, e.g. "he is taller than his father is", or "the village is less picturesque than the town near by is". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative 17.11.06)
has super-classes
degree featurec

comparative particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ComparativeParticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922
Particle used to compare. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922)
has super-classes
particlec

complement clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ComplementClause

Current version:
Santorini 1991
In noun phrases like the fact that she is late, the subordinate clause that she is late is a complement of the noun fact and should not be confused with a relative clause. (Note that the embedded clause she is late is not missing a constituent; by contrast, in a relative clause construction like the TV that she bought the other day, the clause that she bought the other day is incomplete.) The entire noun phrase should be bracketed as a sister of the head noun. (NP the fact (SBAR that (S (NP she) (VP is (ADJP late))))) (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
subordinate clausec

complementizer fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ComplementizerField

The C-Feld occurs in verb-final clauses in German (exception: the conjunction als in subordinated sentences of comparison als w¨are es nie geschehen.). It is obligatorily occupied in finite verb-final clauses if there is no conjunction in the Linke Klammer. In non-finite verb-final clauses the C-position may be empty. This field can be occupied by conjunctions of sentential objects (e.g. daß, ob) or sentence initial conjunctions like um, obwohl, wenn and also by complex interrogative or relative phrases, e.g. ..., ’um wieviel Geld’ geht es dabei? / ..., ’an der’ Max Daniel Professor f¨ur Klavier ist. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

completivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CompletiveAspect

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
To do something thoroughly and to completion.
has super-classes
aspect featurec

compositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Composition

Current version:
adopted from Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#Compound
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting together old words. In other words, compound, compounding or word-compounding occurs when a person attaches two or more words together to make them one word. The meanings of the words interrelate in such a way that a new meaning comes out which is very different from the meanings of the words in isolation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_%28linguistics%29)
has super-classes
morphological processc

compound prepositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CompoundPreposition

Current version:
subClassOf preposition (dcif:isA)
Preposition that is a aggregation of words (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1934)
has super-classes
prepositionc

condition rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionRole

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ConditionalAdverb
Adverbial that denotes a condition. (Petrova and Odebrecht 2011)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

conditionalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalModality

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258
In Inuktitut, conditionality is expressed by verbal inflection. Conditional mood signifies conditional relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) A conditional relation is a logical relation in which the illocutionary act employing one of a pair of propositions is expressed or implied to be true or in force if the other proposition is true. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConditionalRelation.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
conditionalc, conditional irrealis modalityc, conditional realis modalityc

conditionalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalMood

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258
In Inuktitut, conditionality is expressed by verbal inflection. Conditional mood signifies conditional relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) A conditional relation is a logical relation in which the illocutionary act employing one of a pair of propositions is expressed or implied to be true or in force if the other proposition is true. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConditionalRelation.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
has super-classes
mood featurec
conditionalc
has sub-classes
conditional irrealis moodc, conditional realis moodc

conditional clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalClause

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#conditionalClause
Conditional clauses refer to a hypothetical situation, in English they are introduced by 'if' or 'unless'. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#conditionalClause)
has super-classes
subordinate clausec

conditional irrealis modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalIrrealisModality

Current version:
ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonReal is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood
Conditional Mood (modality) with Irrealis meaning (ILPOSTS)
has super-classes
conditionalc
has sub-classes
conditional irrealis moodc

conditional irrealis moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalIrrealisMood

Current version:
ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonReal is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood
Conditional Mood (modality) with Irrealis meaning (ILPOSTS)
has super-classes
conditional irrealis modalityc
conditionalc

conditional participlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalParticiple

Current version:
adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages
[In Bengali, t]he Conditional Participle is widely used to convey "if a certain action [pertaining to the parent verb] is done,...". The logic is: "in the case or condition of a certain action being done". Being impersonal, without regard for the doer of the action that caused the condition, it is not declined to suit number or gender. If this doer is not defined in the Bengali condition clause but needs to be stated in a natural-sounding English translation, this is identified and drawn from the second clause. For example:- Student: Teaching Truth in Bengali If you pay attention,* you will learn. manoyog kar-*le* tumi shikh-be. * [or, If attention is paid] (http://www.jaspell.co.uk/bengalicourse2007/wb149study49.pdf)
has super-classes
participlec

conditional particulec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalParticle

Current version:
DCR subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
conditional particule (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2230)
has super-classes
particlec

conditional pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalPronoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2222
conditional pronoun (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2222)
has super-classes
pronounc

conditional realis modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalRealisModality

Current version:
ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Real is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood
Conditional Mood (modality) with Realis meaning (ILPOSTS)
has super-classes
conditionalc
has sub-classes
conditional realis moodc

conditional realis moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalRealisMood

Current version:
ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Real is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood
Conditional Mood (modality) with Realis meaning (ILPOSTS)
has super-classes
conditionalc
conditional realis modalityc

conditional verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConditionalVerb

Current version:
EAGLES finite verb with VerbForm="Conditional".
A conditional verb is a verb form in many languages. It is used to express degrees of certainty or uncertainty and hypothesis about past, present, or future. Such forms often occur in conditional sentences. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditional_mood 19.09.06)
has super-classes
finite verbc

conjugatedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Conjugated

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2207
Property of a verbal form when inflected (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2207)
has super-classes
inflectedc

conjunctc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Conjunct

Current version:
TIGER edge label CJ
TIGER edge label CJ
has super-classes
syntactic rolec

conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Conjunction

Current version:
EAGLES top-level concept Conjunction (C).
A conjunction is a word that syntactically links words or larger constituents, and expresses a semantic relationship between them. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConjunction.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
conjunction phrasec, coordinating conjunctionc, subordinating conjunctionc

conjunction phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConjunctionPhrase

Current version:
Penn bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995
Multi-word conjunction Besides the usual and, or, but, etc., certain prepositions and subordinating conjunctions can be used as coordinating conjunctions. Multi-word coordinating conjunctions are labeled CONJP (see section 7 [Coordination]). ... CONJP — Conjunction Phrase. Used to mark certain “multi-word” conjunctions, such as as well as, instead of. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
conjunctionc
phrasec

constituentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#Constituent

Current version:
http://www.linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2008/SyntacticConstruction
Constituents correspond to a GOLD SyntacticConstruction: SyntacticConstruction is the class of grammar units that have syntactic structure, i.e., consisting of more than one syntactic word or construction in a syntactic configuration. [Crystal 1980, 85-86]. (http://www.linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2008) Corresponds to units of annotation in the EAGLES recommendations for syntactic annotation (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node29.html#SECTION00052000000000000000)
has sub-classes
clausec, fragmentc, phrasec, sentencec

contablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContablativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contablative
ContablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from near which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from near'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

contallative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContallativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contallative
ContallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contallative)
has super-classes
case featurec

conterminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ConterminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conterminative
ConterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'moving into the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conterminative)
has super-classes
case featurec

contextual variationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContextualVariation

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Variation on a particular usage or immediate proximity of words.
has super-classes
possiblec

continuous aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContinuousAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Continuous
Similar to progressive, however an aspect is continuous versus progressive when it is anchored to non-punctual time reference (Salaberry 2002:264). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Continuous)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

contlative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContlativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contlative
ContlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location in the vicinity of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'in the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contlative)
has super-classes
case featurec

contractionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Contraction

Current version:
Uby POS, undocumented, http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl
no definition given
has super-classes
residualc

contrastive emphatic particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle, shorthand for ContrastiveParticle and EmphaticParticle
is equivalent to
contrastive particlec and emphatic particlec
has super-classes
emphatic particlec

contrastive particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ContrastiveParticle

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle, note: there may be contrastive particles that are not emphatic
Contrastive particle, e.g., (one of the uses of) Urdu tô: vo urdû parhê gâ "He will study Urdu." (simple statement) vo tô urdû parhê gâ "HE will study Urdu." (Contrast: the other students may not.) (Schmidt 1999, p. 232, see http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle)
has super-classes
particlec

controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Control

Current version:
From http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#Control. But note that we regard Control as a feature of syntactic units (either verbs [=> control/raising] or arguments [=> raisable argument], not as a subclass of Frame, this reflects a different understanding of "Frame", in OLiA, Frames are semantic units, in lexinfo, they seem to be syntactic patterns, in other resources, e.g., VerbNet, both aspects are combined.
Control indicates how a an argument from a main clause will be utilized in a subclause. This class includes both control structures and raising structures (http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#Control)
has super-classes
movement featurec
has sub-classes
arbitrary controlc, object controlc, raising subjectc, subject controlc

converbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Converb

Current version:
TODO: clarify terminological relation between Converb, Supine and AdverbialParticiple
A converb is "[...] a nonfinite verb form whose main function is to mark adverbial subordination. Another way of putting it is that converbs are verbal adverbs, just like participles are verbal adjectives." Haspelmath, M., & König, E. (1995). Converbs in cross-linguistic perspective, p. 3
has super-classes
non finite verbc
has sub-classes
supinec

coord type featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#CoordTypeFeature

Current version:
DEPRECATED: reimplemented as class hierarchy
has super-classes
has coord typeop
has sub-classes
correlativec, initialc, non initialc, simplec
is in range of
has coord typeop

coordinate clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CoordinateClause

Current version:
adopted from http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#coordinateClause
A coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which are not syntactically dependent on one another, and are joined by means of a coordinate conjunction, a connective or parataxis. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsACoordinateClause.htm).
has super-classes
finite clausec
has sub-classes
cosubordinate clausec

coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
EAGLES Conjunction with Type="Coordinating". EAGLES' optional CoordType attribute subclassifies coordinating conjunctions, with respect to positional characteristics (repetition/pairing of expressions forming complex conjunctions). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06) CoordType was originally implemented as MorphosyntacticFeature, the new modelling follows the MULTEXT-East ontology (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType)
Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join two items of equal syntactic importance. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction 19.09.06)
has super-classes
conjunctionc
has sub-classes
coordination particlec, correlative coordinating conjunctionc, initial coordinating conjunctionc, non initial coordinating conjunctionc, repetitive coordinating conjunctionc, simple coordinating conjunctionc
is in domain of
has coord typeop

coordinationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Coordination

As has already been shown in some of the preceding examples, the issue of coordination necessarily arises: how is coordination to be represented in terms of constituency? Different approaches have been taken, and in the example analyses given in this document, we have chosen to take a traditional approach, showing the coordinated constituents at the same level, with the conjunction between them (see also 47 and 48): (51) [NP [NP John NP] and [NP Mary NP] NP] (52) She went [PP [PP to the library PP] or [PP to the cafeteria PP] PP] (53) He works [ADVP [ADVP very slowly ADVP] but [ADVP very meticulously ADVP] ADVP] However, in practice, in an automated parsing system, this is not an easy differentiation to make, and in some existing schemes, a slightly less satisfactory solution has been found, viz. analysing coordination in a similar fashion to subordination. Most constituents (both phrases and clauses) can be coordinated, but the extent to which this is possible will differ across languages. The conjuncts may be marked as such by separate descriptors: NPtex2html_wrap_inline4084 etc. However, there are many occasions where the conjuncts are not of the same formal category, or where they do not correspond to an entire phrasal or clausal constituent. There is much to be said, in these cases, or perhaps for all cases of coordination, for the use of a generalised label applied to all coordinate constituents or conjuncts, e.g. the label CO used in the TOSCA system. We do not offer a definitive solution for the annotation of coordination, and the many variants of coordination will not be considered further in this report. See Sampson (1995: 310f) for a detailed treatment. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node37.html)
has super-classes
phrasec

coordination particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CoordinationParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
particle for coordination (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2227)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc
particlec

coordinator fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CoordinatorField

The KOORD-field is the field for coordinating particles in the German clause. In contrast to the PARORD-field, it can optionally occur as the left-most element of all clause types. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

copulac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Copula

Current version:
Adopted from the SFB632 annotation guidelines. In EAGLES, copulas are not distinguished from auxiliaries, hence represented as such here.
A copula is an intransitivity verb which links a subject to a noun phrase, an adjective or an other constituent which expresses the predicate. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACopula.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
auxiliary verbc

correlativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Correlative

Current version:
from EAGLES, reimplemented as subhierarchy of CoordinatingConjunction
When the same word is also placed before the first conjunct, as in French "ou...ou...", the former occurrence is given the Correlative value and the latter the Simple value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coord type featurec

correlative coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction
When the same word is also placed before the first conjunct, as in French "ou...ou...", the former occurrence is given the Correlative value and the latter the Simple value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc

cosubordinate clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CosubordinateClause

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#non-embeddedSubordinateClause Termed "cosubordination" here in accordance with van Valin and LaPolla (1997)
has super-classes
coordinate clausec

count numberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CountNumber

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CountNumber
MULTEXT-East feature Number="count" (Nouns in Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian), e.g., Bulgarian яка/як, язовира/язовир, яда/яд, юргана/юрган, юбилея/юбилей, ъгъла/ъгъл (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CountNumber)
has super-classes
number featurec

countability featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#CountabilityFeature

has super-classes
has countabilityop
has sub-classes
countablec, uncountablec
is in range of
has countabilityop

countablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Countable

Current version:
EAGLES, remodelling of MassNoun vs. CommonNoun
A countable noun (also count noun) is a noun which can be modified by a numeral and occur in both singular and plural form, as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc.. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countable_noun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
countability featurec

countable nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#CountableNoun

Current version:
EAGLES Noun with Countability="Countable".
A countable noun (also count noun) is a noun which can be modified by a numeral and occur in both singular and plural form, as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc.. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countable_noun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
nounc and (has countabilityop some countablec)

datec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Date

Current version:
adopted from Sajjad (2007, for Urdu, cf. http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#Date)
Date is a stretch of text that specifies a specific point in time and that is not further linguistically analysed. (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
residualc

datingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TemporallyDefinedUsage

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Indication specifying whether the usage is old or modern.
has super-classes
possiblec
has sub-classes
modernc, oldc

dative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DativeCase

Current version:
EAGLES
Dative case marks indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist), or nouns having the role of a recipient (as of things given), a beneficiary of an action, or a possessor of an item. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsDativeCase.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
case featurec

debitive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DebitiveModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Mood to express necessity or requirement
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
debitive moodc

debitive moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DebitiveMood

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Mood to express necessity or requirement
has super-classes
mood featurec
debitive modalityc

declarative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeclarativeModality

Current version:
generalization over DeclarativeMood
Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a type of (formal) assertion (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#declarativeModality)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
declarative moodc, declarative punctuationc, declarative sentencec, indicative moodc

declarative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeclarativeMood

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#declarativeModality
Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a type of (formal) assertion (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#declarativeModality) Unlike DeclarativeModality, a DeclarativeMood is morphologically marked.
has super-classes
mood featurec
declarative modalityc

declarative punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeclarativePunctuation

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Punctuation used at the end a declarative sentence.
has super-classes
declarative modalityc
sentence final punctuationc

declarative sentencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeclarativeSentence

Current version:
Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
S|Simple declarative clause, i.e. one that is not introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction or wh-word and that does not exhibit subject-verb inversion. (Santorini 1991) Simple declarative sentences: (S (NP-SBJ Casey) (VP threw (NP the ball))) ... S â ´ Simple declarative clause, i.e. one that is not introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction or wh-word and that does not exhibit subject-verb inversion. (Bies et al. 1995)
is equivalent to
sentencec and (has modalityop some declarative modalityc)
has super-classes
sentence type featurec
declarative modalityc

deductive evidentialityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeductiveEvidentiality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
DeductiveEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through a sound inference procedure. [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
has super-classes
evidentiality featurec

deficient verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeficientVerb

Current version:
This is an ill-defined concept originating from ISOcat. It is however, not possible to circumscribe it in OLiA as it lacks an established concept of deficiency. Despite the unsatisfactory definition, this was thus adopted in OLiA for compatibility with ISOcat, but marked as deprecated.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
verb lacking certain morphosyntactic properties
has super-classes
verbc

definitec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Definite

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#definite, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2004
Value referring to the capacity of identification of an entity. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2004) An entity is specified as definite when it refers to a particularized individual of the species denoted by the noun. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#definite) Definite noun phrases are used to refer to entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definiteness 20.11.06)
has super-classes
definiteness featurec

definite articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DefiniteArticle

Current version:
EAGLES Article with Article-Type="Definite".
A definite article is used before singular and plural nouns that refer to a particular member of a group. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_%28grammar%29 18.09.06)
has super-classes
articlec
has sub-classes
clitic definite determinerc, full articlec, short articlec

definiteness featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#DefinitenessFeature

Current version:
TODO: use this property to define Definite/IndefiniteArticle
has super-classes
has definitenessop
has sub-classes
definitec, indefinitec, status constructusc
is in range of
has definitenessop

degree adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DegreeAdverb

Current version:
EAGLES Adverb with Adverb-Type="Degree".
Any adverb which modifies an adjective, an adverb, a verbal particle, a preposition, a conjunction or a determiner is a degree adverb. (http://xlex.uni-muenster.de/Portal/MTPE/tagsetDescriptionEN.doc, p. 113, 8.1 Degree Adverbs 23.09.06) Also known as specifier adverb (http://www.unlweb.net/unlarium/dictionary/export_tagset.php)
has super-classes
adverbc

degree featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#DegreeFeature

has super-classes
has degreeop
has sub-classes
comparativec, elative degreec, positivec, superlativec
is in range of
has degreeop

delative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DelativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Delative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1268
DelativeCase expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53; Gove, et al. 1966: 595). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Delative)
has super-classes
case featurec

demonstrative adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DemonstrativeAdverb

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#AdverbialDemonstrative, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#DistalDemonstrativeAdverb
Pronominal adverb derived from a demonstrative stem (Ch. Chiarcos)
has super-classes
pronominal adverbc

demonstrative determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DemonstrativeDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Demonstrative".
Demonstratives are deictic expressions (they depend on an external frame of reference) which indicate entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. Demonstratives are usually employed for spatial deixis (using the context of the physical surroundings), but in many languages they double as discourse deictics, referring not to concrete objects but to words, phrases and propositions mentioned in speech. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstrative 19.09.06)
has super-classes
attributive pronounc

demonstrative modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DemonstrativeModifier

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#demonstrativeModifier
A nominal is modified by a demonstrative. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#demonstrativeModifier)
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

demonstrative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DemonstrativePronoun

Current version:
EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Demonstrative".
Demonstrative pronouns are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference). They indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstrative_pronoun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pronounc

demonstrative quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DemonstrativeQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemonstrativeQuantifier
In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="demonstrative" are items meaning `this many/much', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns (because they contain a demonstrative element) or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemonstrativeQuantifier)
has super-classes
pro quantifierc

dependency relationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#DependencyRelation

has super-classes
syntactic relationc

deponent middlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeponentMiddle

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeponentMiddle
Action denotes physical/mental disposition of subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeponentMiddle)
has super-classes
middle voicec

derivationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Derivation

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1271
Change in the form of a linguistic unit, usually modification in the base/root or affixation to create a new word. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1271)
has super-classes
morphological processc
has sub-classes
augmentativec, collectivec, diminuitivec, nominalizationc

determinal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeterminalPronoun

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DeterminalPronoun
The Estonian determinal pronouns _ise_, _end(a)_ `(one)self'." combine aspects of emphatic pronouns and reflexive pronouns. It could also be described as an intensifier that is formally identical with the reflexive pronoun or as an emphatic reflexive pronoun. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DeterminalPronoun; Insa Gülzow (2006), The acquisition of intensifiers: Emphatic reflexives in English and German child language, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 258)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc

determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Determiner

Current version:
Note that "Determiner" in OLiA also covers determiner-like elements in languages without grammaticalized determiner category. This is because AttributePronoun is defined as being in the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. In languages without grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are, howevetr, not characterized as determiners, but rather as adjectives. In order to provide a uniform modeling of attributive pronouns, they are defined here as being the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. (Chiarcos)
A determiner is a noun modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun phrase in the context, including quantity, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This part of speech is defined in some languages, such as in English, as it is distinct from adjectives grammatically, though most English dictionaries still identify the determiners as adjectives. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determiner 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pronoun or determinerc
has sub-classes
articlec, attributive pronounc, emphatic determinerc, indefinite determinerc, partitive determinerc, reflexive adjectivec, uniquitive determinerc, w h determinerc

determiner phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DeterminerPhrase

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z, NOTE: not to be confused with "determiner phrase" in generative grammar, which would be a NounPhrase in most annotation frameworks
Certain pronouns serving as determiners in noun phrases may be premodified, for instance, by degree adverbs such as in German "so viele ¨Altere", "gar kein Schutz", etc. In the case of "so viele Ältere", the premodifying adverb so is attached to the indefinite pronoun viele. Together, they form a determiner phrase (DP), which is attached to the head noun Ältere on the same level: [so viele] Ältere (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.63)
has super-classes
phrasec

diacriticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Diacritic

has super-classes
orthographic entityc
has sub-classes
macronc

dialect registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DialectRegister

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1990
Register that is specific to a dialect. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1990)
has super-classes
register featurec

differential pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DifferentialPronoun

Current version:
TOCHECK: maybe this is a quantifier ?
A pronoun, which classifies or differentiates(pronoun) by a single basis, like everybody; each; individual etc. འ ག་པ ་ ་ ར་ ག་ར་ ན་ ང་ ང་ཁ་ ས་ད ། Drupai Miser Gara Enrung Dzongkha ShegÔ 'Every Bhutanese must know Dzongkha' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
pronounc

digit numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DigitNumeral

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Numeral expressed by Arabic digits.
has super-classes
numeralc
stringc

diminuitivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Diminuitive

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Diminuitive, in MTE v.4 originally modelled as an aspect of Degree, but this is a misplacement. There are languages where Degree and Diminuitivity are independent. In Latvian, for example, the diminutive suffix may be attached to an adjective, not only in the positive but in the comparative and superlative degrees (Ruke-Dravina 1953). Velta Ruke-Dravina (1953), Adjectival Diminuitives in Latvian. The Slavonic and East European Review 31(77): 452-465
A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. It is the opposite of an augmentative. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diminutive)
has super-classes
derivationc

diminutive nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DiminutiveNoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2225
diminutive noun (MIRACL LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2225)
has super-classes
nounc

direct casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DirectCase
In the Romanian case system the value 'direct' conflates 'nominative' and 'accusative', e.g., -acea/acel, -aceasta/acesta, -această/acest (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DirectCase)
has super-classes
case featurec

direct objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectObject

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/directObject, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1274
A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following: the usual grammatical characteristics of the patient of typically transitive verbs; particular case marking; a particular clause position; the conditioning of an agreement affix on the verb; the capability of becoming the clause subject in passivization; the capability of reflexivization. The identification of the direct object relation may be further confirmed by finding significant overlap with similar direct object relations previously established in other languages. This may be done by analyzing correspondence between translation equivalents (Crystal 1985: 94; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Mish et al. 1990: 358; Comrie 1989: 66; Andrews, Avery 1985: 68,120,126; Comrie 1985a: 337). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/directObject)
has super-classes
syntactic objectc
has sub-classes
ditransitive themec, transitive objectc

direct questionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectQuestion

Current version:
Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
There are two types of direct questions: yes-no questions and wh-questions. Yes-no questions should be bracketed as SQ. The auxiliary verb or form of do that precedes the subject in a yes-no question is a child of SQ. Note that yes-no questions need not contain a VP node (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
questionc
has sub-classes
direct w h questionc, yes no questionc

direct speechc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectSpeech

Current version:
added in accordance with TIGER
added in accordance with TIGER
has super-classes
narrative typec

direct voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectVoice
Signals that the action proceeds in an ontologically salient way, i.e. that salience is assigned to nominals based on their referent's relative real-world capacities to control situations. (Klaiman 1991:32) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectVoice)
has super-classes
active voicec

direct w h questionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectWHQuestion

Current version:
Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
SBARQ|Direct question introduced by a wh-word or wh-phrase. See Section 5.32. Indirect questions and relative clauses should be bracketed as SBAR, not SBARQ. (Santorini 1991) Wh-questions should be bracketed as SBARQ. The wh-constituent (whether it is a subject or not) is a child of SBARQ; the rest of the question is an SQ. If the wh-constituent is a subject or an object, the position where it is interpreted should be represented by the empty element T. (Santorini 1991) The SBARQ label marks wh-questions (i.e., those that contain a gap and therefore require a trace). A further level of structure, SQ, contains the inverted auxiliary (if there is one) and the rest of the sentence. The inverted auxiliary in wh-questions is not labeled. ... SBARQ â ´ Direct question introduced by a wh-word or wh-phrase. See section 1 [Overview of Basic Clause Structure]. Indirect questions and relative clauses should be bracketed as SBAR, not SBARQ. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
direct questionc

direction rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DirectionRole

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. (1995)
-DIR (direction) â ´ marks adverbials that answer the questions â ¼from where?â ½ and â ¼to where?â ½ It implies motion, which can be metaphorical as in â ¼...rose 5 pts. to 57-1/2â ½ or â ¼increased 70% to 5.8 billion yenâ ½ (see section 23 [â ¼Financialspeakâ ½ Conventions]). -DIR is most often used with verbs of motion/transit and financial verbs: (S (NP-SBJ I) (VP flew (PP-DIR from (NP Tokyo)) (PP-DIR to (NP New York)))) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
semantic rolec
has sub-classes
path rolec, source rolec, target rolec

discourse markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DiscourseMarker

Current version:
Introduced in accordance with the TIGER and TüBa-D/Z annotation schemes (syntactic edge label)
Generally, discourse markers are expressions or phrases of greeting, apologizing, thanking, short emotional utterances, and interjections. Their node label is DM. ... Typical discourse markers are: ja, nein, hallo, oh, aha, pst, nunja, gewiß, toll, nun ja, etc. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p. 136)
has super-classes
uniquec

distalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Distal

Current version:
added in accordance with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDistalDeterminer
The referent denoted by a distal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English that) is usually spatially more remote or discoursally less salient as compared to a referent denoted by a proximal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English this) (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
proximity featurec

distinctive particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DistinctiveParticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2228
distinctive particle (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2228)
has super-classes
particlec

distributive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DistributiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DistributiveCase
The distributive case is used on nouns for the meanings of per or each, e.g., Hungarian egyenként/egy, hetenként/hét, ilyenként/ily, kéthetenként/kéthét, rekordonként/rekord, tömbönként/tömb, vércsoportonként/vércsoport In Hungarian it is -nként and expresses the manner when something happens to each member of a set one by one (e.g., fejenként "per head", esetenként "in some case"), or the frequency in time (hetenként "once a week", tízpercenként "every ten minutes"). In the Finnish language, this adverb type is rare, even rarer in the singular. Its ending is -ttain/-ttäin. The basic meaning is "separately for each". For example, maa ("country") becomes maittain for an expression like Laki ratifioidaan maittain ("The law is ratified separately in each country"). It can be used to distribute the action to frequent points in time, e.g., päivä (day) has the plural distributive päivittäin (each day). It can mean also "in (or with) regard to the (cultural) perspective" when combined with a word referring to an inhabitant (-lais-). Frequently Finns (suomalaiset) say that suomalaisittain tuntuu oudolta, että, or "in the Finnish perspective, it feels strange that". (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DistributiveCase, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributive_case)
has super-classes
case featurec

distributive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DistributivePronoun

Current version:
adopted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Distributivity is a property of Pronominals
When the subject is conjoined, the reflexive cannot refer to only one of them. The proform has to be a distributive pronoun, i.e., the reduplicated form, when it has coreference to respective subjects, e.g., *kumaarum_i/Kumar.and umaavum_j/Uma.and tan_i+j/self-poss puunekki/cat.to paalu/milk kuDuttaanaanga/give-pst-aggr. "*Kumar_i and Uma gave milk to his_i/her_j cat." (Annamalai 2000, p. 189, on Tamil) Unlike reciprocals, the two parts of a distributive pronoun cannot be considered as two full, independent NPs. In "awar/1 awar/2", only "awar/2" is case marked; "awar/1" is its citation form. Also, the two parts cannot be separated by intervening material (cf. English "one another"). (Jayaseelan 2000, p. 149, on Malayalam) (K.A. Jayaseelan, 2000, Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Malayalam, In: Barbara C. Lust, Kashi Wali, James W. Gair, K.V.Subharao (eds.), Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. A Principled Typology, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 113-168) (E. Annamalai, 2000, Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Tamil, , In: Barbara C. Lust, Kashi Wali, James W. Gair, K.V.Subharao (eds.), Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. A Principled Typology, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 169-216)
has super-classes
pronounc

ditransitivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Ditransitive

Current version:
SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)
A predicate/verb that takes two arguments, e.g., English "to give", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).
has super-classes
valency featurec

ditransitive themec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DitransitiveTheme

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#T
Ditransitive theme (T) (Siewierska 2004:57). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#T)
has super-classes
direct objectc

dominance relationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#DominanceRelation

has super-classes
syntactic relationc

dotc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Point

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Sign (.) used to expresses the end of a sentence or an abbreviation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1445)
has super-classes
sentence final punctuationc

dualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Dual

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1879
Form used in some languages to designate two persons or things. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1879)
has super-classes
number featurec

dual quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DualQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier
Quantifiers that enforce dual agreement (i.e., as with the numeral "2"). Some feminine and neuter body parts in Czech have preserved dual forms, and if the noun is dual, so are its attributes (adjectives, pronouns). So the agreement of the numeral 2 differs formally from 3-4 (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/16, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier) Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier)
is equivalent to
quantifierc and (has numeral agreement classop some dual quantifierc)
has super-classes
numeral agreement classc

dubitive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DubitiveModality

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive
DubitiveMood indicates a speaker's doubt or uncertainty about a proposition (Palmer 2001). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
dubitive moodc

dubitive moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DubitiveMood

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive
DubitiveMood indicates a speaker's doubt or uncertainty about a proposition (Palmer 2001). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive)
has super-classes
mood featurec
dubitive modalityc

durative aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DurativeAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Durative
Events which involve some duration (Bhat 1999:58). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Durative)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

dynamic aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#DynamicAspect

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#dynamicityAspect
dynamic aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#dynamicityAspect)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

echo wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EchoWord

Current version:
adopted from Ancorra for Indian languages, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#EchoWord
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
The word is a copy of a previous word. In Hindi, this would add the meaning of distribution ("one rupee each"), separation ("sit separately"), variety, diversity or just emphasis. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-4209, reduplicative) Echo word is a linguistic term that refers to a particular kind of reduplication which is a widespread areal feature in the languages of South Asia. Echo words are characterized by reduplication of a complete word or phrase, with the initial segment or syllable of the reduplicant being overwritten by a fixed segment or syllable. In most languages in which this phenomenon is present, echo words serve to express a meaning of "... and such; and things like that." In some cases the echo word may express a depreciative meaning as well. Echo words in Hindi are typically created with a fixed initial v: aam "mango" aam vaam "mangoes and the like" tras "grief" tras vras "grief and the like" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_word)
has super-classes
word
reduplicationc

elative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Elative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1276, note that the latter conflates ElativeDegree and ElativeCase
ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' (Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106; Gove, et al. 1966: 730). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Elative)
has super-classes
case featurec

elative degreec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElativeDegree

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElativeDegree, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1276, note that the latter conflates ElativeDegree and ElativeCase
MULTEXT-East Degree="elative" (Adjective: Resian, Serbian, Macedonian)<br/> In Semitic languages, ElativeDegree refers to the “adjective of superiority.” In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.” The elative of كبير (kabí:r, "big") is أكبر (’ákbar, “bigger/biggest”, “greater/greatest”). (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/elative) In Slavic languages, as well, it is pretty standard. I do agree with the definition though, that "the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.”" So, Slovene "lep" is beautiful, "prelep" is very (or supremely) beautiful; I guess the "pre-" prefix could be roughly translated as "over-". Used in Resian, Serbian, Macedonian. In Slovenian, we banished it, as even "ordinary" degrees are borderline inflection / derivation, but, I think, elative is is definitely not inflection. (Tomaž Erjavec, email 2010/06/21)
has super-classes
degree featurec
has sub-classes
elative nounc

elative nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElativeNoun

Current version:
added in compliance with ISOcat
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun to express both comparative and superlative
has super-classes
common nounc
elative degreec

element demanding cliticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElementDemandingClitic

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemandingClitic
Expression representing a lexeme with cliticization whose clitics are, however, represented as a separate token
has super-classes
element without cliticc

element with cliticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElementWithClitic

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElementWithClitic"
Expression representing a lexeme together with its clitics (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
cliticizationc

element without cliticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ElementWithoutClitic

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElementWithoutClitic"
Expression representing a lexeme without any clitics (i.e. because of the absence of cliticization or because the clitic is represented separately) (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
cliticizationc
has sub-classes
element demanding cliticc

elisionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Elision

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1277
The omission of a syllable or vowel at the beginning or end of a word, esp. when a word ending with a vowel is next to one beginning with a vowel. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=elision; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1277)
has super-classes
phonological processc

ellipsisc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Ellipsis

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)
*?* â ´ placeholder for ellipsed material ... *?* is now available in the following great-tasting flavors: (VP *?*), (ADJP-PRD *?*), (PP-PRD *), (NP *?*), (S *?*), (SBAR *?*). These act as placeholders for a missing predicate or piece thereof, especially in comparative constructions and other environments where predicate deletion occurs. Although the missing material represented by *?* is often identical to another constituent in the same sentence, the two are never coindexed. Postmodifiers of the verb (including traces) may be attached under (VP *?*), but not to any other null element, including the other *?* null elements and (VP *T*). Note that policy for *?* was never finalized, so its use varies to some extent. In general, *?* is used by the annotators as a last resort (short of the FRAG analysis) for the annotation of clauses with â ¼missingâ ½ material. Nonetheless, there are certain constructions that are particularly likely to contain *?*: (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
null elementc

emphasis featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#EmphasisFeature

Current version:
in EAGLES and MULTEXT-East restricted to pronouns, in ILPOSTS applicable to many different WordClasses, hence modelled as an independent feature, cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Emphasis
has super-classes
has emphasisop
has sub-classes
emphaticc, non emphaticc
is in range of
has emphasisop

emphaticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Emphatic

Current version:
added in accordance with ILPOSTS, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticPronoun, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941 (emphatic pronoun)
Pronoun marked to show its importance. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941) In Romanian, the so-called emphatic determiner may accompany both a noun and a personal pronoun: fata *însăşi* (the girl *herself*), also ea *însăşi* (she *herself*). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer) Emphasis can not only be expressed on nouns and pronouns, but also at verbs, adverbs, adpositions, etc., cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Emphasis
has super-classes
emphasis featurec

emphatic determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EmphaticDeterminer

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer
Determiner/Type="emphatic" (Romanian)<br/> In Romanian, there are specific forms for the so-called emphatic determiner, which may accompany both a noun and a personal pronoun: fata însăşi (the girl herself), also ea însăşi (she herself). e.g., însele/însumi, însemi/însumi, însene/însumi, însevă/însumi, înseşi/însumi, înseţi/însumi, însumi, însuşi/însumi, însuţi/însumi (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer)
is equivalent to
determinerc and (has emphasisop some emphaticc)
has super-classes
determinerc

emphatic particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EmphaticParticle

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ExclusiveEmphaticParticle, etc. From a logical point of view, emphasis is closely related to intensification, hence, subconcept of Intensifier
Emphatic particle, e.g., (one of the uses of) Urdu tô: vo urdû parhê gâ "He will study Urdu." (simple statement) vo urdû parhê gâ tô lêkin imtihân nahîm dê gâ "He will STUDY Urdu, OF COURSE, but he won't take the examination." (Schmidt 1999, p. 232, see http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ContrastiveEmphaticParticle)
is equivalent to
particlec and (has emphasisop some emphaticc)
has super-classes
intensifierc
particlec
has sub-classes
contrastive emphatic particlec, exclusive emphatic particlec, inclusive emphatic particlec

emphatic pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EmphaticPronoun

Current version:
subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)
Pronoun marked to show its importance. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941)
is equivalent to
pronounc and (has emphasisop some emphaticc)
has super-classes
pronounc

epistemic possibility modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EpistemicPossibilityModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
EpistemicPossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is not known not to be true.
has super-classes
modality featurec

equative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EquativeCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1279
Case that expresses likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks. It can have meaning, such as: 'as', 'like', or 'in the capacity of'. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1279)
has super-classes
case featurec

ergative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ErgativeCase

Current version:
TDS Ontology
In ergative-absolutive languages, the ergative case identifies the subject of a transitive verb. In such languages, the ergative case is typically marked (most salient), while the absolutive case is unmarked. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#ergativeCase with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_case).
has super-classes
case featurec

essive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EssiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Essive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1281
EssiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location at which another referent exists (Lyons 1968: 299,301; Gove, et al. 1966: 778; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 1994: 154-5). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Essive)
has super-classes
case featurec

essive formal casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EssiveFormalCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EssiveFormalCase
The Hungarian "formativus, or essivus-formalis `-ként' ... usually expresses a position, task and manner of the person or the thing." (Nose 2003), e.g., Hungarian 'katonaként' -> [serves] as a soldier. (Csaba Oravecz, email 2010/06/15)<br/><br/> "Haspelmath & Buchholz (1998:321) explained the function of the essive case as ``role phrases''. Role phrases represent the role of the function in which a participant appears. They regard the role phrases as adverbial." (Nose 2003, p. 117)<br/> In the Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (e.g. "as a tourist"), or the manner (e.g. "like a hunted animal"). The status of the suffix -ként in the declension system is disputed for several reasons. First, in general, Hungarian case suffixes are absolute word-final, while -ként permits further suffixation by the locative suffix -i. Second, most Hungarian case endings participate in vowel harmony, while -ként does not. For these reasons, many modern analyses of the Hungarian case system, starting with László Antal's "A magyar esetrendszer" (1961) do not consider the essive/formal to be a case. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essive-formal_case)<br/> cf. Masahiko Nose (2003), Adverbial Usage of the Hungarian Essive Case
has super-classes
case featurec

evaluative featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#EvaluativeFeature

has super-classes
has evaluative featureop
has sub-classes
pejorative evaluativec, preferred evaluativec
is in range of
has evaluative featureop

evaluative propertyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EvaluativeModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
EvaluativeProperty: A term used in semantics for a type of modality where propositions express the speaker's attitude (e.g. surprise, regret) towards what is being said. [Crystal 2003: 168]
has super-classes
modality featurec

evidentiality featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#EvidentialityFeature

has super-classes
has genderop
has sub-classes
deductive evidentialityc, other source evidentialityc, visual evidentialityc
is in range of
has evidentialityop

exclamative pointc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExclamativePoint

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Special sign (!) usually used in writing to mark exclamation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1441)
has super-classes
main punctuationc

exclamatory adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExclamatoryAdverb

Current version:
EAGLES WHAdverb with Wh-Type="Exclamatory".
An ExclamatoryAdverb seves to express exclamation, cf. how in "How well everyone played!" Exclamative sentences or exclamatives An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement, in particular, they are used are used to express strong feelings (Latin exclamare : "to call out, to cry out"). (http://english.unitecnology.ac.nz/resources/resources/exp_lang/sentence.html 07.05.07, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_(linguistics) 07.05.07)
has super-classes
w h type adverbsc

exclamatory determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExclamatoryDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with optional attribute WhType="Exclamatory"
A exclamatory determiner is used in combination with a Nominal Phrase in order to create an exclamation (a more emphatic form of statement), e.g. "What a lovely colour!", "What a wonderful day this is!" (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/pub/eagles/lexicons/elm_en.ps.gz, p.27, 07.05.07; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_(linguistics), 07.05.07)
has super-classes
w h determinerc

exclamatory pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExclamatoryPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES WHPronoun with Wh-Type="Exclamatory".
An exclamative pronoun is a word which marks an exclamation. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnExclamative.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
w h pronounc

exclusivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Exclusive

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
a form denoting that the addressee (addressees) are not included into the set of their referents which contain also the speaker
has super-classes
clusivity featurec
has sub-classes
exclusive emphatic particlec, first exclusivec

exclusive emphatic particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExclusiveEmphaticParticle

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE for Urdu, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ExclusiveEmphaticParticle
In Urdu, the exclusive emphatic particle hî emphasizes the preceding word and excludes something else (which may not be expressed). (Schmidt 1999, p.233, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ExclusiveEmphaticParticle) Compare with the inclusive emphatic particle bhî: maim *bhî* faisalâ karûm gâ "I'll *also* make a decision" maim *hî* faisalâ karûm gâ "*I'm the one who* will make the decision." (Schmidt 1999, p.237, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#InclusiveEmphaticParticle)
has super-classes
emphatic particlec
exclusivec

existential particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExistentialParticle

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ExistentialThere
English existential there is specified as a subtype of pronoun in MTE v4, i.e., Pronoun/Type="ex-there" (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ExistentialThere)
has super-classes
particlec

existential pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExistentialPronoun

Current version:
merely a shorthand for ExistentialParticle and Pronoun, hence deprecated
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
pronoun that indicates the existence of something or someone
is equivalent to
existential particlec and pronounc

expansion variationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExpansionVariation

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Description of the kind of variation between full and abbreviated forms.
has super-classes
lexical relationc
relationc

experiencer rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExperiencerRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#experiencerRole, originally a subconcept of UndergoerMacroRole
An experiencer instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who takes the event in through sensory means in some way. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#experiencerRole)
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

expletivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Expletive

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1283
Word which serves no grammatical function, but which fills up a sentence or gives emphasis. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1283)
has super-classes
uniquec
has sub-classes
expletive pronounc

expletive argumentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExpletiveArgument

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). ... The formal subject obligatorily occurs with weather verbs, e.g. "Es regnet" and unpersonal or agentless constructions such as "Es gibt so eine Buchung" or "Es geht um populäre Unterhaltung." Some verbs optionally permit an expletive subject but also occur with referential subjects such as "Max/Es kopft an der Tür." A formal object is found in constructions like "jmd. legt es an auf etw." or "jmd. verdirbt es mit jmdm." In all examples mentioned, es functions as a grammatical argument without semantic contribution, i.e. it does not refer to a person, object, or event. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60f)
has super-classes
expletive pronounc

expletive correlatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExpletiveCorrelate

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60) Extraposed clausal arguments: "Aber [es] ist übertrieben zu sagen, damit bekäme die FU erst eine Identität." (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.62)
has super-classes
expletive pronounc

expletive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExpletivePronoun

Current version:
Missing in the EAGLES recommendations, added in accordance with the TIGER annotation scheme (for German). As expletive pronouns often (e.g., in German or English) have the form of 3.sg personal pronouns, expletives are modelled here as subclass of ThirdPersonPronoun.
An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997, 127] (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Expletive) In European languages, expletives are pronouns. A verbal part of speech that "has no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical" is a copula (see AuxiliaryVerb).
has super-classes
expletivec
third person pronounc
has sub-classes
expletive argumentc, expletive correlatec, structural expletivec

extent rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ExtentRole

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. (1995)
-EXT (extent) â ´ marks adverbial phrases that describe the spatial extent of an activity. -EXT was incorporated primarily for cases of movement in financial space, but is also used in analogous situations elsewhere. (S (NP-SBJ the Dow Jones Industrial Average) (VP plunged (NP-EXT 190.58 points))) (S (NP-SBJ She) (VP walked (NP-EXT 5 miles))) Obligatory complements do not receive -EXT: (S (NP-SBJ The sumo wrestler) (VP gained (NP 80 pounds))) Words such as fully and completely are absolutes and do not receive -EXT. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

extrapositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Extraposition

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995
*EXP* — Expletive (extraposition) ... In cases where a clausal subject has been extraposed and replaced by an expletive it, we use a type of pseudo-attach called *EXP*. (In the small ATIS sample included with this release, it is also used for existential there.) Use of *EXP*-attach is discussed in more detail in section 17 [It-Extraposition]. (S (NP-SBJ (NP It) (SBAR *EXP*-1)) (VP is (ADJP-PRD clear) (PP to (NP me)) (SBAR-1 that (S (NP-SBJ this message) (VP is (ADJP-PRD unclear)))))) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
syntactic constructionc
has sub-classes
left dislocation fieldc

ezafec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Izafat

Current version:
from the EMILLE tagset for Urdu, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#Izafat, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#GenitiveCase for the modelling of the Izafat in the Farsi MULTEXT-East.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
The izāfat (pronounced as a shorter form of –ē–) is an enclitic of Persian origin which is used in Farsi and neighboring languages. In Urdu, it can be considered a preposition under certain circumstances: it links two nouns in a possessive relationship, although the phrase thus produced may often have a different meaning to a phrase produced with the native Urdu postposition kā. However, the izāfat may also join a noun to an adjective, in which case it is not so clearly accurate to describe it as a preposition parallel to the prepositions in European languages for which the EAGLES guidelines were compiled. A better way to treat izāfat is in the context of the Unique category of miscellaneous one-member wordclasses, discussed below. (Hardie 2003, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#Izafat) enclitic morpheme used to form noun phrases and that can denote possession, can form apposition or can join adjectives to nouns. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2999)
has super-classes
uniquec

facecious registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FacetiousRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Register related to an expression that is intended to be clever and funny but that is really silly and annoying. (Longma DCE; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1991)
has super-classes
register featurec

factive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FactiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FactiveCase
case category of the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, e.g., amilyenné/amilyen, azzá/az, erőddé/erő, jelmezeivé/jelmez, jelükké/jel, kevéssé/kevés, Kissé/Kiss, legjelentéktelenebbekké/jelentéktelen (hu) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FactiveCase)
has super-classes
case featurec

facultative prepositional objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FacultativePrepositionalObject

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z edge label FOPP
facultative (i.e. optional) prepositional object, e.g., passivized subject (von-phrase)
has super-classes
prepositional objectc

familiar second person pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FamiliarSecondPersonPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES PersonalPronoun with Politeness="Familiar". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns.
In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. The concept FamiliarSecondPersonPronoun applies to the corresponding unmarked forms for informal conversiation in such languages. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)
has super-classes
second person pronounc

family namec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FamilyName

Current version:
introduced as generalization over http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl#nounProperSecondName
In most European cultures, family names have been introduced into name formulas to identify a person's family, so that individuals with the same given name can be distinguished. (CC)
has super-classes
proper namec

femininec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Feminine

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#feminineGender
Feminine gender is a grammatical gender that marks nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. that have human or animal female referents, and often marks nouns that have referents that do not carry distinctions of sex. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2at 17.11.06)
has super-classes
gender featurec

final fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FinalField

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

finite clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FiniteClause

has super-classes
clausec
has sub-classes
coordinate clausec, main clausec, subordinate clausec

finite verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FiniteVerb

Current version:
EAGLES Verb with Finiteness="Finite".
A finite verb is a verb form that occurs in an independent clause, and is fully inflected according to the inflectional categories marked on verbs in the language. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAFiniteVerb.htm 19.09.06) Property applied to a verb form that can occur on its own in an independent sentence. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1287)
has super-classes
verbc
has sub-classes
conditional verbc, imperative verbc, indicative verbc, subjunctive verbc

finite verb phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FiniteVerbPhrase

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
has super-classes
verb phrasec

first exclusivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FirstExclusive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstExclusive, modelled as a subconcept of First here
Refers to the speaker and one or more nonparticipants, but not hearer(s). Contrasts with FirstPersonInclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstExclusive)
has super-classes
exclusivec
first personc

first inclusivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FirstInclusive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstInclusive, modelled here as subconcept of First
Refers to the speaker, hearer(s) and possibly others. Contrasts with FirstPersonExclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstInclusive)
has super-classes
first personc
inclusivec

first personc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#First

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/First
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
First person deixis is deictic reference that refers to the speaker, or both the speaker and referents grouped with the speaker (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1288) cf. gold:First: Refers to the speaker and one or more nonparticipants, but not hearer(s). Contrasts with FirstPersonInclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/First)
has super-classes
person featurec
has sub-classes
first exclusivec, first inclusivec

first person pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FirstPersonPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES Pronoun with Person="First". As only personal and reflexive pronouns show person differentiation, FirstPersonPronoun is modelled as a subclass of PersReflConcept here.
A FirstPersonPronoun refers to the speaker, or to both the speaker and referents grouped with the speaker. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsFirstPersonDeixis.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc

fixed expressionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FixedExpression

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PartOfFixedExpression
Some forms can only be used in a fixed context, e.g., polsku in po polsku. They are classified as special kinds of adjectives in the IPIC. In the MTE version this information is preserved in the status of a "burkinostka". This term is devised by Magdalena Derwojedowa and refers to dependent words like Burkina which only make sense and can be morphosyntactically identified in a fixed combination (Burkina Faso).
has super-classes
collocationc
has sub-classes
phrasemec

focus antipassivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FocusAntipassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FocusAntipassive
Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the P, but Focus salience is always assigned to A, and is therefore inaccessible to P or any other nominal. (Klaiman 1991:236) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FocusAntipassive)
has super-classes
antipassivec

focus markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FocusMarker

Current version:
In compliance with ISOcat, this is defined here as a morpheme. However, focus markers can be independent words, as well.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
a morpheme indicating that the element it marks is the focus of the utterance.
has super-classes
morphemec

force rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ForceRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#forceRole
A force role is one in which the instantiator (the “force”) exerts some degree of energy which initiates (or impacts on) the execution of the event. In contrast to an agent, an instantitor of a force may be an inanimate entity, such as a climactic condition. The non-controlling entity instigating a Process (=Dynamism or Change) (Dik, 1997:118) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#forceRole)
has super-classes
actor macro rolec

foreign phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ForeignPhrase

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
Single foreign words are projected to a syntactic level assigned the node label FX, which is an universal label for any syntactic category (phrasal and sentential) in the respective foreign language. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.44)
has super-classes
phrasec

foreign wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Foreign

Current version:
EAGLES Category Residuals with Type="ForeignWord".
A foreign word is a text word which lies outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, it occurs quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06)
has super-classes
residualc

formal casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FormalCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FormalCase
In Hungarian, `essive-formal' is in some descriptions simply called `formal', with the affix _-képp(en)_ and meaning (`in the form of ...', they probably meant when they came up with the term). In the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, essive-formal and formal are distinguished. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FormalCase)<br/>
has super-classes
case featurec

formal registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FormalRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Formal register. (12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1992)
has super-classes
register featurec

formulac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Formula

Current version:
EAGLES category Residual with the attribute Type="Formula".
A formula (mathematical formulae) is a text word which lies outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, it occurs quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06)
has super-classes
residualc

fractional numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Fraction

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral, http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#FractionalNumeral
Numeral/Form="fractional" (Romanian)<br/> In traditional Romanian grammars, FractionalNumeral refers to expressions like treime-one third. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral)
has super-classes
numeralc

fragmentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Fragment

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
FRAG marks those portions of text that appear to be clauses, but lack too many essential elements for the exact structure to be easily determined (e.g., answers to questions). Predicate argument structure therefore cannot be extracted from FRAGs. (Bies et al. 1995) Sentence fragments that end with sentence- nal punctuation like Not even an earthquake. should not be bracketed as S, but only with the highest appropriate label|in this case, NP. Do not attach such fragments to the preceding or following full sentence. (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
constituentc

framec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Frame

Current version:
Introduced to account for semantic frames in lexinfo, note that full-fledged semantic role annotation is subject to specialized resources (FrameNet, Verbnet, etc.) and beyond the scope of OLiA. For compliance with lexinfo, however, these have been added to OLiA.
According to "Frame Semantics, deriving from the work of Charles J. Fillmore and colleagues (Fillmore 1976, 1977, 1982, 1985, Fillmore and Baker 2001, 2010) ... [,] the meanings of most words can best be understood on the basis of a semantic frame: a description of a type of event, relation, or entity and the participants in it. For example, the concept of cooking typically involves a person doing the cooking (Cook), the food that is to be cooked (Food), something to hold the food while cooking (Container) and a source of heat (Heating_instrument)." (https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/fndrupal/about)
has super-classes
lexical unitc

frequentive aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FrequentiveAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Frequentive
Events which are frequently repeated, differs from habitual in that it can only be based upon the observation of several occurrences of the event concerned, whereas habitual can be based upon the observation of a single occurrence (Bhat 1999: 53). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Frequentive)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

frontingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Fronting

Current version:
T-CODEX (Petrova 2008, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#InitionalPosition)
Expression occurs at the left periphery of the sentence. This includes various noncanonical and canonical word order possibilities. (Note that it is not restricted here to noncanonical word order; for noncanonical fronting see subconcepts, e.g., Topicalization.) (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
syntactic constructionc
has sub-classes
hanging topicc, initial fieldc, left dislocation fieldc, topicalizationc

full articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FullDefiniteArticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1928
For definiteness, when a specific form is the syntactic subject of the clause. (DFKI; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1928)
has super-classes
definite articlec

fused prep artc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FusedPrepArt

Current version:
EAGLES Adposition with Type="FusedPrepArt"
The additional value Fused prep-art is for the benefit of those who do not find it practical to split fused words such as French au (= à + le) into two text words. This very common phenomenon of a fused preposition + article in West European languages should preferably, however, be handled by assigning two tags to the same orthographic word (one for the preposition and one for the article). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1ap 19.09.06)
has super-classes
articlec
prepositionc

fused prepositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FusedPreposition

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1901
Preposition that is the result of a morphological merge from at least two words. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1901)
has super-classes
prepositionc

fused preposition pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FusedPrepositionPronoun

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
word resulting from the aggregation of a preposition and a pronoun
has super-classes
prepositionc
pronounc

fused pronoun auxiliaryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FusedPronounAuxiliary

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
word resulting from the aggregation of a pronoun and an auxiliary
has super-classes
auxiliary verbc
pronounc

futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Future

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#futureTense, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future
The future tense refers to events that have yet to happen. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future 17.11.06) The future tense refers to a tense category which places an event in the future. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#futureTense) FutureTense locates the situation in question later than the present moment (time of speaking.) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future)
has super-classes
absolute tensec
has sub-classes
hodiernal futurec, immediate futurec, near futurec, post hodiernal futurec, remote futurec, simple futurec

future in futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FutureInFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInFuture, classified as absolute-relative tense here.
FutureInFutureTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInFuture)
has super-classes
absolute-relative tensec

future in pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FutureInPast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInPast, classified as absolute-relative tense here
FutureInPastTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInPast)
has super-classes
absolute-relative tensec

future particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FutureParticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1919, taxonomic organization (under VerbalParticle) follows http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FutureParticle, regrouped under TenseMarkingParticle
Particle used in order to express future. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1919)
has super-classes
tense marking particlec

future perfectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#FuturePerfect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativeFuture, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292
RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance. Also called FuturePerfectTense (Comrie 1985:69-71). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativeFuture) A verb tense that refers to an action or state of being completed in the future. Translation into English requires the use of the auxiliary verbs will/shall have. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292) A tense of verbs describing an action that will have been performed by a certain time. In English this is formed with will have or shall have plus the past participle. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=future+perfect; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292)
has super-classes
relative tensec

gappingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Gapping

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991)
The term "gapping" refers to a form of coordination in which the coordinated phrases after the rst are incomplete. For instance, the gapped equivalent of the full coordination structure in (@18a) is given in ( 18b). ( 18) a. Mary likes Bach and Susan likes Beethoven. b. Mary likes Bach and Susan, Beethoven. Gapped sequences like Susan, Beethoven should be labelled X. On the other hand, while coordination constructions containing gapped sequences involve coordination of unlike categories, it is clear that the entire coordination structure is a clause; hence, it should be labelled S. (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
null elementc

gender featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#GenderFeature

has super-classes
has genderop
has sub-classes
animate genderc, common genderc, femininec, inanimate genderc, masculinec, neuterc
is in range of
has genderop, owner genderop

generalization wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GeneralizationWord

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A word that does not carry its own meaning but generalizes the meaning of a neighboring word, adding the "etc." sense.
has super-classes
residualc

genitive attributec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GenitiveAttribute

Current version:
TODO: check definition
added in conformance to the TIGER scheme
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

genitive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GenitiveCase

Current version:
EAGLES-recommended case feature
Genitive case signals that the referent of the marked noun is the possessor of the referent of another noun, e.g. "the man's foot". In some languages, genitive case may express an associative relation between the marked noun and another noun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsGenitiveCase.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
case featurec

geographical variantc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GeographicalVariant

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851
Description of a specific form used in a certain region as opposed to another form used in another region (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851)
has super-classes
possiblec

gerundc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Gerund

Current version:
cf. ILPOSTS NominalParticiple, for Indian languages, there in contrast with AdjectivalParticiple, AdverbialParticiple and ConditionalParticiple, but no definition provided. (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NominalParticiple)
property for a non-finite form of a verb other than the infinitive. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2243) A gerund is a kind of verbal noun that exists in some languages. In today's English, gerunds are nouns built from a verb with an '-ing' suffix. They can be used as the subject of a sentence, an object, or an object of preposition. They can also be used to complement a subject. Often, gerunds exist side-by-side with nouns that come from the same root but the gerund and the common noun have different shades of meaning. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerund, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/English:Gerund 19.09.06) The term _gerund_ is ambiguous: with respect to Latin, in whose grammatical tradition it originates, it refers to a deverbal noun, and is needed in this function for Polish as well; in descriptions of some other languages, however, it has been used for an adverbial participle. The two meanings have nothing in common, except that the English _ing_-form can translate both. (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09) Here, it is assumed that Gerund refers only to deverbal nouns, cf. NominalNonfiniteVerb in the IIIT tagset (http://purl.org/olia/iiit.owl#NominalNonFiniteVerb)
has super-classes
non finite verbc
has sub-classes
ingc

gerund verb phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GerundVerbPhrase

Current version:
Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#GerundChunk
VGNN Gerunds A verb chunk having a gerund will be annotated as VGNN. For example, h18a. sharAba ((pInA_VM))_VGNN sehata ke liye hAnikAraka hE. 'liquor' 'drinking' 'heath' 'for' 'harmful' 'is' “Drinking (liquor) is bad for health” h19a. mujhe rAta meM ((khAnA_VM))_VGNN acchA lagatA hai 'to me' 'night' 'in' 'eating' 'good' 'appeals' “I like eating at night” h20a. ((sunane_VM meM_PSP))_VGNN saba kuccha acchA lagatA hE 'listening' 'in' 'all' 'things' 'good' 'appeal' 'is' (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)
has super-classes
nonfinite verb phrasec

given namec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GivenName

Current version:
introduced as generalization over http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl#nounProperFirstName
In most European cultures, a given name designates an individual person throughout her/his life span. To distinguish people with the same name but from different families, additional elements have been introduced into name formulas that identify a person's family or ancestry. (CC)
has super-classes
proper namec

goal rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GoalRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#goalRole
A goal role instantiates the (intended) end location (directional path) of an event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#goalRole)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

graphical separatorc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#GraphicalSeparator

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Character string that appears between two written forms
has super-classes
characterc
has sub-classes
spacec

habitual aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HabitualAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Habitual (as Aspect), http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense (as Tense), modelled as an aspect here (temporally unmarked Habitual should be modelled as NotTemporallyAnchored)
Habitual tense pertains to verbs which refer to an action that occurs repeatedly. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense) Refers to the internal temporal contour of a situation — a repeated situation that occupies a large slice of time. Can be based on the observation of a single occurrence. (Bhat 1999:177) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Habitual)
is equivalent to
habitual moodc
has super-classes
aspect featurec

habitual moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HabitualMood

Current version:
adopted from ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#HabitualMood, I assume that HabitualMood is equivalent with HabitualAspect, hence no corresponding HabitualModality has been introduced
"Habitual" is normally considered to be an aspect. Occasionally, it is, however, also described as a mood, e.g., by Bittner (2008, p. 354) for Kalaalisut (Greenlandic). Maria Bittner (2008), Aspectual universals of temporal anaphora, In: Susan Deborah Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and crosslinguistic approaches to the semantics of aspect, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, p. 349-386.
has super-classes
mood featurec

hanging topicc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HangingTopic

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#HangingTopic
HangingTopic constructions are closely related to LeftDislocation. Unlike LeftDislocation, the dislocated element and its resuming pronoun do not necessarily agree in case, number and gender. (Petrova and Odebrecht 2011, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#HangingTopic)
has super-classes
frontingc

has conjunctc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#hasConjunct

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType
has super-classes
syntactic relationc
has parentop some coordinating conjunctionc
has sub-classes
has sentence conjunctc, has word conjunctc

has sentence conjunctc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#hasSentenceConjunct

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SentenceCoordinatingConjunction
has super-classes
has conjunctc
has childop some clausec or sentencec

has word conjunctc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#hasWordConjunct

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#WordCoordinatingConjunction
has super-classes
has conjunctc
has childop some tokenc

havec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HaveAuxiliary

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299
The verb have as an auxiliary. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299)
has super-classes
strict auxiliary verbc

headc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Head

Current version:
TIGER edge label HD, definition according to Penn Treebank Bracketing Guidelines (Santorini 1991)
TIGER edge label HD
has super-classes
syntactic rolec
has sub-classes
head of n pc, verbal headc

head of n pc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HeadOfNP

Current version:
EAGLES NPFunction="head"
The HeadFunction is a function of an adjective or participle that can serve as the focus of the phrase.
has super-classes
headc

headlinec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Headline

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995
-HLN (headline) — marks headlines and datelines. Note that headlines and datelines always constitute a unit of text that is structurally independent from the following sentence. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
discourse entityc

hesternal pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HesternalPast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HesternalPast, classified as Past here
HesternalPastTense locates the situation in question somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as 'yesterday' and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote (Comrie 1985:87-88; Dahl 1985:126). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HesternalPast)
has super-classes
pastc

hodiernal futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HodiernalFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalFuture, classified as Future here
HodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalFuture)
has super-classes
futurec

hodiernal pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HodiernalPast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalPast, classified as Past here
HodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:125-126). Contrasts with PreHodiernalPastTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalPast)
has super-classes
pastc

homographc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Homograph

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Word that is written like another, but that has a different pronunciation, meaning, and/or origin.
has super-classes
lexical relationc
relationc

homonymc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Homonym

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Word that sounds the same and is written the same as another word but is different in meaning.
has super-classes
lexical relationc
relationc

homophonec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Homophone

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Word that sounds like another word, but is different in writiing or meaning.
has super-classes
lexical relationc
relationc

honorificc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Honorific

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2347
special form of language used when talking about those in positions of social situation (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2347)
has super-classes
possiblec

honorific common nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HonorificCommonNoun

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010)
Dzongkha uses honorific forms: ན་བཟའ་/nam za/ (cloths) is the honorific form of the noun གོ་ ལ་/gola/(cloths), གསངས་/sung/(tell) the honorific form of the verb སབ་/lab/(tell). We opted to mark them by adding the tag NNH (honorific common noun) and VBH (honorific verb) to enable future research on this specific usage of Dzongkha language. A number of tags were added to the set, of which we describe four in more detail: two of the additional tags are subclasses of verbs: VBH (honorific verb form), and VBN which describes past participle forms, like, e.g. བངམ་/jun/(created), the past particle form of བང་/jung/(create). (Chungku et al. 2010) A noun, which indicates respect for the person being addressed, e.g., Miwang Gel-poi Yab “A king's father” [Though father=Apa, but colloquially we say YAB in Dzongkha] (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
common nounc

honorific verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HonorificVerb

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#HonorificVerb)
Dzongkha uses honorific forms: ན་བཟའ་/nam za/ (cloths) is the honorific form of the noun གོ་ ལ་/gola/(cloths), གསངས་/sung/(tell) the honorific form of the verb སབ་/lab/(tell). We opted to mark them by adding the tag NNH (honorific common noun) and VBH (honorific verb) to enable future research on this specific usage of Dzongkha language. A number of tags were added to the set, of which we describe four in more detail: two of the additional tags are subclasses of verbs: VBH (honorific verb form), and VBN which describes past participle forms, like, e.g. བངམ་/jun/(created), the past particle form of བང་/jung/(create).
has super-classes
main verbc

hortative forcec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#HortativeModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A term sometimes used in the grammatical analysis of verbs, to refer to a type of modal meaning in which an exhortation is made. An example of a hortative usage ('a hortative') is the 'let us' construction in English ('let us pray'). [Crystal 2008: 232] (http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2010/HortatoryForce)
has super-classes
actional forcec

humanc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Human

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Human
For Slavic languages, animacy, and in particular, Humanness, defines so-called "sub-genders" that manifest themselves in the accusative ending of masculine and neuter singular nouns. Humans are by definition animate. (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Human)
has super-classes
animatec

hyphenc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Hyphen

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2077
Punctuation that is graphically presented as "-". (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2077)
has super-classes
sentence medial punctuationc

ideophonec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Ideophone

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery.
has super-classes
semantic unitc

illative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IllativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Illative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1303
IllativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location into which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'into' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1126; Crystal 1985: 152). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Illative)
has super-classes
case featurec

imagec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Image

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2249
graphical representation (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2249)
has super-classes
layout elementc

immediate futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImmediateFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediateFuture
ImmediateFutureTense, also called 'close future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediateFuture)
has super-classes
futurec

immediate pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImmediatePast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediatePast, classified as Past here
ImmediatePastTense locates the situation in question at a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 87). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediatePast)
has super-classes
pastc

imperative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImperativeModality

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperativeModality
Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a command, request, or exhortation (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperativeModality)
has super-classes
actional forcec
has sub-classes
imperative moodc

imperative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImperativeMood

Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a command, request, or exhortation (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperativeModality)
has super-classes
mood featurec
imperative modalityc

imperative verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImperativeVerb

Current version:
EAGLES FiniteVerb with VerbForm="Imperative"
An imperative verb is used to express commands, direct requests, and prohibitions. Often, direct use of the imperative mood may appear blunt or even rude, so it is often used with care. Example: "Paul, read that book". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_mood#Imperative_mood 19.09.06)
has super-classes
finite verbc

imperfectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Imperfect

Current version:
subClassOf grammaticalTense (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Verb tense that refers to action in the past that is incomplete or ongoing. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1304)
has super-classes
still presentc

imperfective aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImperfectiveAspect

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperfectiveAspect, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Imperfective
The Imperfective aspect is an aspect that expresses an event or state, with respect to its internal structure, instead of expressing it as a simple whole. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsImperfectiveAspect.htm 17.11.06) The imperfective aspects ... do not view the situation as bounded, but rather as ongoing in either a durative, continuative or habitual sense (Bybee 1985:21) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperfectiveAspect) A viewpoint aspect which encodes the speaker’s lack of attention to the endpoints of the situation referred to. Imperfective aspect is the prototypical mode of presentation for states (Michaelis 1998:xiv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Imperfective)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

Impersonalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImpersonalVerb

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1306
(of a verb) having no logical subject. Usually in English the pronoun it is used in such cases as a grammatical subject, as for example in It is raining. (of a pronoun) not denoting a person (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=impersonal; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1306)
has super-classes
main verbc
has semantic valencyop some atransitivec

impersonal passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImpersonalPassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImpersonalPassive
A Passive that alters the mapping of a nominal to the Subject relation in a basic intransitive structure (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImpersonalPassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

impersonal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ImpersonalPronoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1426
Pronoun lacking person referent. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1426) More precisely, a form of pronoun that denotes the absence of a concrete or specific referent, e.g., German "man". As opposed to IndefinitePronoun, this referent is not just discourse-new, but generic or hypothetical.
has super-classes
indefinite pronounc

impossiblec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Impossible

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
to denote something that cannot be considered as being correct in a given language
has super-classes
usage and frequency featurec

in house registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InHouseRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Register of terms that are company-specific and not readily recognized outside this environment. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1993)
has super-classes
register featurec

inablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InablativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inablative
InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

inallative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InallativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inallative
InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inallative)
has super-classes
case featurec

inanimatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Inanimate

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1952
Perceived as not living. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1952)
has super-classes
animacy featurec

inanimate genderc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InanimateGender

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inanimate
One of the two grammatical genders, or noun classes, of Nishnaabemwin, the other being animate. Membership in the inanimate grammatical class is largely based on meaning, in that non-living things, such as objects of manufacture and natural 'non-living' things are included in it (Valentine 2001: 114). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inanimate)
has super-classes
gender featurec
has sub-classes
vegetable genderc

inceptive aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InceptiveAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inceptive
InceptiveAspect, also called the ingressive, encodes the beginning portion of some event (Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240; Bhat 1999:176). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inceptive)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

inchoativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InchoativeAspect

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Aspect that expresses the beginning of an event or state.
has super-classes
aspect featurec

inclusivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Inclusive

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
the form denoting that the addressee (addressees) are included into the set of their referents which contain also the speaker
has super-classes
clusivity featurec
has sub-classes
first inclusivec, inclusive emphatic particlec

inclusive emphatic particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InclusiveEmphaticParticle

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE for Urdu, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#InclusiveEmphaticParticle
In Urdu, bhî is an emphatic particle meaning 'even'. In opposition to contrastive tô and exclusive hî, bhî is inclusive: maim *bhî* faisalâ karûm gâ "I'll *also* make a decision" maim *hî* faisalâ karûm gâ "*I'm the one who* will make the decision." (Schmidt 1999, p.237, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#InclusiveEmphaticParticle)
has super-classes
emphatic particlec
inclusivec

incorporating antipassivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IncorporatingAntipassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IncorporatingAntipassive
Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. This correlates with the P's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. (Klaiman 1991:236) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IncorporatingAntipassive)
has super-classes
antipassivec

indefinitec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Indefinite

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indefinite
An entity is specified as indefinite when it refers to a non-particularized individual of the species denoted by the noun. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indefinite) Indefinite noun phrases are used to refer to entities which are not specific and identifiable in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definiteness 20.11.06)
has super-classes
definiteness featurec

indefinite articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefiniteArticle

Current version:
EAGLES Article with Article-Type="Indefinite".
An indefinite article is used before singular nouns that refer to any member of a group. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_%28grammar%29 18.09.06)
has super-classes
articlec

indefinite cardinal numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefiniteCardinalQuantifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
ndefiniteCardinalNumeral: A word used to express imprecise quantity.
has super-classes
indefinite quantifierc

indefinite determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefiniteDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Indefinite"
An indefinite determiner is a determiner that expresses a referent's indefinite number or amount, i.e. "some", "any", "many". (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuantifier.htm 22.09.06) Note that here, a separate top-level class Quantifier has been introduced that covers expressions of number and amount as *semantic* concepts. Plural indefinite determiners are thus to be modeled as IndefiniteDeteriner and Quantifier.
has super-classes
determinerc
has sub-classes
negative determinerc

indefinite multiplicative quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefiniteMultiplicativeQuantifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A word indicating imprecise number of times something happened.
has super-classes
indefinite quantifierc

indefinite pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefinitePronoun

Current version:
EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Indefinite".
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that belongs to a class whose members indicate indefinite reference. Examples in English are "anybody", "one", "somebody". (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnIndefinitePronoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pronounc
has sub-classes
impersonal pronounc, negative pronounc, nonspecific pronounc

indefinite quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndefiniteQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#IndefiniteQuantifier
In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="indefinite" are items meaning `several/some', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#IndefiniteQuantifier)
has super-classes
pro quantifierc
has sub-classes
indefinite cardinal numeralc, indefinite multiplicative quantifierc

indicative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndicativeMood

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Indicative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indicativeModality
The indicative is the unmarked mood. It is used when no special modal nuance in the clause or sentence is intended. It is the default mood of independent declarative and often also of interrogative sentences. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Indikativ 18.06.07) Expression of assertion. (Bybee 1985:22) Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a stated relation of objective fact (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indicativeModality)
has super-classes
mood featurec
declarative modalityc

indicative verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndicativeVerb

Current version:
EAGLES FiniteVerb with VerbForm="Indicative"
Indicative mood is used in factual statements. All intentions in speaking that a particular language does not put into another mood use the indicative. It is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_mood#Indicative_mood 19.09.06)
has super-classes
finite verbc

indirect objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IndirectObject

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#R, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1310
An indirect object is a grammatical relation that is one means of expressing the semantic role of goal and other similar roles. It is proposed for languages in which the role is distinct from the direct object and the oblique object on the basis of multiple independent syntactic or morphological criteria, such as the following: (i) Having a particular case marking, commonly dative (ii) Governing an agreement affix on the verb, such as person or number (iii) Being distinct from oblique relations in that it may be relativized A noun, pronoun, or noun phrase indicating the recipient or beneficiary of the action of a verb and its direct object (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1310) Third argument of a ditransitive verb. Ditransitive recipient (Siewierska 2004:57). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#R)
has super-classes
syntactic objectc

inessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InessiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1311
InessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location within which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'within' or 'inside' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1156; Crystal 1985: 156). X in Y. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

infinitival clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EmbeddedInfinitive

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withInfinitiveAsHead, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#InfinitivalClause
An infinitive is the head of the embedded construction. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withInfinitiveAsHead) Infinitival relatives. See section 14 [Infinitives] for more information. (NP (NP a movie) (SBAR (WHNP-1 0) (S (NP-SBJ *) (VP to (VP see (NP *T*-1)))))) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
non finite embedded constructionc

infinitivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Infinitive

Current version:
EAGLES NonFiniteVerbs with VerbForm="Infinitive"
An infinitive is the base form of a verb. It is unmarked for inflectional categories such as the following: Aspect, Modality, Number, Person and Tense. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnInfinitive.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
non finite verbc

infinitive particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InfinitiveParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle used to express infinitive. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1896)
has super-classes
verbal particlec

infinitive verb phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InfinitiveVerbPhrase

Current version:
Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#InfiniteVerbChunk
VGINF Infinitival Verb Chunk This tag is to mark the infinitival verb form. In Hindi, both, gerunds and infinitive forms of the verb end with a -nA suffix. Since both behave functionally in a similar manner, the distinction is not very clear. However, languages such as Bangla etc have two different forms for the two types. Examples from Bangla are given below. b8. Borabela ((snAna karA))_VGNN SorIrera pokze BAlo 'Morning' 'bath' 'do-verbal noun' 'health-gen' 'for' 'good' ‘Taking bath in the early morning is good for health” b9. bindu Borabela ((snAna karawe))_VGINF BAlobAse 'Bindu' 'morning' 'bath' 'take-inf' 'love-3pr' “Bindu likes to take bath in the early morning” In Bangla, the gerund form takes the suffix –A / -Ano, while the infinitive marker is –we. The syntactic distribution of these two forms of verbs is different. For example, the gerund form is allowed in the context of the word darakAra “necessary” while the infinitive form is not, as exemplified below: b10 Borabela ((snAna karA))_VGNN darakAra 'Morning' 'bath' 'do-verbal noun' 'necessary' “It is necessary to take bath in the early morning” b11. *Borabela ((snAna karawe))_VGINF darakAra Based on the above evidence from Bangla, the tag VGINF has been included to mark a verb chunk. (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)
has super-classes
nonfinite verb phrasec

infixc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Infix

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1313
Affix inserted in the middle of a word to change its meaning or part of speech value. (Sue Ellen Wright; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1313)
has super-classes
affixc
has sub-classes
zu inclusionc

inflectedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Inflected

Current version:
Chiarcos
see subclasses
has super-classes
inflection type featurec
has sub-classes
conjugatedc, inflected with overt markerc

inflected with overt markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InflectedWithOvertMarker

Current version:
Chiarcos, motivated by BaseForm in SUSANNE (Sampson 1995) and related schemes; cf. http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#MarkedForGender
An inflected form with overt morphological marking (as opposed to the base form and lexemes that do not inflect at all).
has super-classes
inflectedc

inflection type featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#InflectionTypeFeature

In this category, different inflection-relevant features are assembled. Typically, inflection phenomena are language-specific and pertain to different grammatial categories; therefore, this collection is neither to be supposed exhaustive nor are the features necessarily disjoint (e.g., InflectedWithOvertMarker overlaps with StrongInflection or WeakInflection)
has super-classes
has inflection typeop
has sub-classes
base formc, inflectedc, mixed inflectionc, strong inflectionc, uninflectedc, weak inflectionc
is in range of
has inflection typeop

infrequently usedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InfrequentlyUsed

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1985
Said of a term that does not appear frequently. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1985)
has super-classes
possiblec

ingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ing

Current version:
Introduced in accordance with EAGLES, where 'Ing' is suggested as a cover term for the Gerund-Participle-Merger in English. This is, however, a language-specific phenomenon and should instead be represented by multiple inheritance from OLiA Reference Model concepts.
English verb forms ending in '-ing' that represent either Gerunds or Participles.
has super-classes
gerundc
participlec

initialc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Initial

Current version:
EAGLES, reimplemented as subhierarchy of CoordinatingConjunction
When two distinct words occur, as in German "weder...noch...", then the first is given the Initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coord type featurec

initial coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InitialCoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
EAGLES
When two distinct words occur, as in German "weder...noch...", then the first is given the Initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc

initial fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InitialField

Current version:
In the canonical sentence, the initial field is the first position in the sentence, hence grouped under Fronting.
In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)
has super-classes
topological fieldc
frontingc

initialismc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Initialism

Current version:
adopted from ubyPos.owl
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
has super-classes
abbreviationc

instrument nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InstrumentNoun

Current version:
deprecated, as merely a shorthand for Noun and hasSemanticRole some InstrumentRole
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun expressing an instrument of the action
is equivalent to
nounc and (has semantic roleop some instrument rolec)

instrument rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InstrumentRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#instrumentRole, cf. TIGER edge label "Instrumental"
SemanticRole added in conformance with TIGER
has super-classes
semantic rolec

instrumental casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InstrumentalCase

Current version:
TDS Ontology, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#instrumentalCase-grammatical; GOLD, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Instrumental; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1316
InstrumentalCase indicates that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Instrumental)
has super-classes
case featurec

intensifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Intensifier

Current version:
adopted from Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#Intensifier
For Hindi, words like 'bahuta', 'kama', etc. when intensifying adjectives or adverbs will be annotated as INTF. Example, h37. hEdarAbAda meM aMgUra bahuta_INTF acche milate hEM 'HyderabAd' 'in' 'grapes' 'very' 'good' 'available' 'are' “Very good grapes are available in Hyderabad” (Bharati et al. 2006) Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf
has super-classes
uniquec
has sub-classes
emphatic particlec

intensive nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IntensiveNoun

Current version:
deprecated, as merely a shorthand for CommonNoun and hasEmphasis some Emphatic
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun that emphasizes another noun
is equivalent to
common nounc and (has emphasisop some emphaticc)
has super-classes
common nounc

interablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterablativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interablative
InterablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from inbetween'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

interallative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterallativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interallative
InterallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is in the middle of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interallative)
has super-classes
case featurec

interessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InteressiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interessive
InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

interjectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Interjection

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Interjection (I).
An interjection is a form, typically brief, such as one syllable or word, which is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation. It typically expresses an emotional reaction, often with respect to an accompanying sentence and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language, e.g. in English: psst; ugh; well, well (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnInterjection.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc

interlative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterlativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interlative
InterlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'to the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interlative)
has super-classes
case featurec

interminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative
'into in(side of)'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative)
has super-classes
case featurec

interrogative adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeAdverb

Current version:
EAGLES Adverb with Wh-Type="Interrogative".
Interrogative adverbs are used to introduce questions, e.g. "When are you coming?" (Angelika Adam)
is equivalent to
question wordc and w h type adverbsc
has super-classes
w h type adverbsc

interrogative cardinal numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeCardinalQuantifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
interrogativeCardinalNumeral: An interrogative/relative word used to ask about quantity.
has super-classes
interrogative quantifierc

interrogative determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with WhType="Interrogative"
A interrogative is a function word used to introduce an interrogative clause. E.g. "which", "what", "whose" (interrogative possessive determiner) are interrogative determiner in English. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interrogative_word 02.05.07)
is equivalent to
question wordc and w h determinerc
has super-classes
w h determinerc

interrogative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeModality

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#interrogativeModality
The interrogative modality serves to indicate interrogative quality. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#interrogativeModality)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
questionc

interrogative multiplicative quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeMultiplicativeQuantifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
An interrogative/relative word used to ask about the number of times something happened.
has super-classes
interrogative quantifierc

interrogative particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle used to express a question. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1921)
is equivalent to
particlec and question wordc
has super-classes
particlec

interrogative pointc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuestionMark

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Sign used to express a question. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1444)
has super-classes
sentence final punctuationc

interrogative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativePronoun

Current version:
EAGLES WHPronoun with Wh-Type="Interrogative".
A interrogative pronoun is a pro-form that is used in questions in place of the item questioned for. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnInterrogativeProForm.htm 19.09.06)
is equivalent to
question wordc and w h pronounc
has super-classes
w h pronounc

interrogative punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativePunctuation

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2087
Punctuation used when the sentence is interrogative. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2087)
has super-classes
main punctuationc

interrogative quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterrogativeQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#InterrogativeQuantifier
In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 pecs, Numeral/Class="interrogative" are items meaning `how many/much', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#InterrogativeQuantifier)
is equivalent to
pro quantifierc and question wordc
has super-classes
pro quantifierc
has sub-classes
interrogative cardinal numeralc, interrogative multiplicative quantifierc

interterminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InterterminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative
InterterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the middle of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through it. It has the meaning 'into the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative)
has super-classes
case featurec

intertranslative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IntertranslativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intertranslative
IntertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory between the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the in between. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intertranslative)
has super-classes
case featurec

intransitivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Intransitive

Current version:
SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)
A predicate/verb that takes one argument, e.g., English "to go", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).
has super-classes
valency featurec

intransitive subjectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IntransitiveSubject

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#S
Intransitive argument (S), single argument of an intransitive verb or only argument in a one-place predicate (frame). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#S)
has super-classes
syntactic subjectc

intranslative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IntranslativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intranslative
IntranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving through the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along through'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intranslative)
has super-classes
case featurec

inverse voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InverseVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InverseVoice
Signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants (Klaiman 1991:32) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InverseVoice)
has super-classes
passive voicec
has sub-classes
nonpromotional inverse voicec, pragmatic inverse voicec, promotional inverse voicec, semantic inverse voicec
is disjoint with
non inverse passivec

inverted commac back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InvertedComma

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Inverted comma. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1443)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

inverted interrogative pointc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#InvertedQuestionMark

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2088
Punctuation used in certain languages at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2088)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

ironic registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IronicRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Register for irony. (12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1994)
has super-classes
register featurec

irrealis modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IrrealisModality

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality
Irrealis modality indicates the situation to which it pertains is non-actual or non-factual. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
irrealis moodc, presumptive modalityc

irrealis moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IrrealisMood

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality
Irrealis modality indicates the situation to which it pertains is non-actual or non-factual. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality)
has super-classes
mood featurec
irrealis modalityc

irreflexive personal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PersonalPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES PersReflPronoun with "Special PronounType"="Personal".
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A personal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a distinction of person deixis. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPersonalPronoun.htm 19.09.06) Note that (despite the SIL definition), an olia:PersonalPronoun refers to irreflexive personal pronouns. Personal pronoun categories without reflexivity sensitivity should be mapped onto olia:PersReflPronoun. (CC)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc
has sub-classes
affixed personal pronounc, strong personal pronounc, weak personal pronounc, zero pronounc

it cleftc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ItCleft

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)
-CLF (cleft) — marks it-clefts (“true” clefts) and may be added to the labels S, SINV, or SQ. See section 16 [Clefts]. (SQ-CLF Was (NP-SBJ it) (NP-PRD (NP John's) car) (SBAR (WHNP-6 0) (S (NP-SBJ you) (VP borrowed (NP *T*-6)))) ?) (Bies et al. 1995) S-CLF (it-cleft or “true” cleft) Declarative it-clefts are labeled S-CLF, expletive it is tagged as the surface subject (-SBJ), the SBAR is attached at VP-level, and a trace is coindexed to the wh-complementizer of the clefted portion. (See section 16 [Clefts] for more information.) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
syntactic constructionc

iterative aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#IterativeAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Iterative
IterativeAspect, also called repetitives, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual (Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127). Portrays events repeated on the same occasion (like the iterative knocking on the door) (Bhat 1999: 53) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Iterative)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

lative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Lative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1323
LativeCase expresses 'motion up to the location of,' or 'as far as' the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121; Gove, et al. 1966: 1277). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Lative)
has super-classes
case featurec

layout elementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LayoutElement

Current version:
Introduced to account for Bullet http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438
has super-classes
residualc
has sub-classes
bulletc, imagec, list markerc

left dislocation fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LeftDislocationField

The German Linksversetzungsfeld is a field for the left-dislocated phrase of resumptive constructions. A Linksversetzung is a pendent constituent. It can be regarded as a syntactic anticipation of a part of a sentence (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.16)
has super-classes
topological fieldc
extrapositionc
frontingc

left parenthetical punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LeftParentheticalPunctuation

Current version:
TODO: rename to OpenPunctuation
Beginning of a paired punctuation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2078)
has super-classes
parenthetical punctuationc
has sub-classes
inverted commac, inverted interrogative pointc, open angle bracketc, open bracketc, open curly bracketc, open parenthesisc, open square bracketc

left sentence bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LeftSentenceBracket

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

letterc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Letter

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1889
Letter. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1889)
has super-classes
characterc

letter numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LetterNumeral

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Numeral expressed with letters.
has super-classes
numeralc
stringc

lexemec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Lexeme

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325
Minimal unit of language which : has a semantic interpretation and embodies a distinct cultural concept. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsALexeme.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325)
has super-classes
lexical unitc
has sub-classes
question wordc

lexical unitc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LexicalUnit

Current version:
introduced as a generalization over Lexeme and Phraseme (as opposed to phrase) with the extension to lexical-semantic resources like Uby
A LexicalUnit is a grammatical expression that is known to the speakers of that language as a conventional expression of a particular concept. It consists of a single lexeme or a conventional combination of lexemes with certain unchangeable characteristics (CC).
has super-classes
semantic unitc
has sub-classes
framec, lexemec

light verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LightVerb

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#LightVerb, for Farsi
In linguistics, a light verb is a verb participating in complex predication that has little semantic content of its own, but provides through inflection some details on the event semantics, such as aspect, mood, or tense. The semantics of the compound, as well as its argument structure, are determined by the head or primary component of the compound, which may be a verb or noun (V+V or V+N compounds). Other names for "light verb" include: vector verb or explicator verb, emphasising its role within the compound; or thin verb or semantically weak verb, emphasising (as with "light") its lack of semantics. A "semantically weak" verb is not to be confused with a "weak verb" as in the Germanic weak inflection. Light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs in some ways. Most English light verbs occur in V+N forms sometimes called "stretched verbs": for example, take in take a nap, where the primary sense is provided by "nap", and "take" is the light verb. The light verbs most common in these constructions are also common in phrasal verbs. A verb which is "light" in one context may be "heavy" in another: as with "take" in I will take a book to read. Examples in other languages include the Yiddish geb in geb a helf (literally give a help, "help"); the French faire in faire semblant (lit. make seeming, "pretend"); the Hindi nikal paRA (lit. leave fall, "start to leave"); and the bǎ construction in Chinese.[1] Some verbs are found in many such expressions; to reuse an earlier example, take is found in take a nap, take a shower, take a sip, take a bow, take turns, and so on. Light verbs are extremely common in Indo-Iranian languages, Japanese, and other languages in which verb compounding is a primary mechanism for marking aspectual distinctions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_verb)
has super-classes
verbc

list markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ListMarker

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995)
LST — List marker. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
layout elementc

location adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocationAdverb

Current version:
ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#LocationAdverb DEPRECATED: equivalent to Adverb and hasSemanticRole some LocationRole
is equivalent to
adverbc and (has semantic roleop some location rolec)
has super-classes
adverbc

location rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocationRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#locationRole, cf. the TIGER edge label "Locative"
Semantic role for the final location of action or a time of the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326) Adverbials that indicate place/setting of the event. (PP-LOC on (NP the moon)) May also indicate metaphorical location: (PP-LOC amongst (NP yourselves)) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

locational casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocationalCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Locational
Category of case that denotes that the referent of the noun it marks is a location. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Locational)
has super-classes
case featurec

locative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocativeCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326
Case that indicates a final location of action or a time of the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326)
has super-classes
case featurec

locative passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocativePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativePassive
An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation. (Klaiman 1991:17) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativePassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

locative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#LocativePronoun

Current version:
TODO: clarify relationship with pronominal adverb
A Locative pronoun is a pronoun, which locates the object of a noun or place of anything. ་ ན་ གས་ ང་ ་ ག། Nâ[LP] PhÜntsho'ling-lu ShÔ 'Come here at Phuntsholing' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
pronounc

macronc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Macron

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1327
Mark placed over a long vowel to mark quantity. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1327)
has super-classes
diacriticc

main clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MainClause

MainClause is the class of clauses that can stand on their own as a full, independent sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause [Crystal 2001, 231]. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MainClause) The independent clause can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. Multiple independent clauses can be joined (usually with a comma and a coordinating conjunction) to form a compound sentence (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#mainClause with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause).
has super-classes
finite clausec

main punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MainPunctuation

Current version:
subClassOf punctuation (dcif:isA)
Punctuation that is more important than a secondary punctuation with regards to sentence splitting in a text. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2075)
has super-classes
punctuationc
has sub-classes
exclamative pointc, interrogative punctuationc, sentence final punctuationc

main verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MainVerb

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400 (main verb)
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Main verb in contrast to a modal or an auxiliary. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400) verb which has its own semantics (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3004, plainVerb)
has super-classes
verbc
has sub-classes
Impersonalc, agentive verbc, aspirational verbc, honorific verbc, non agentive verbc, qualitative verbc

malefactive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MalefactiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Malefactive
Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is negatively affected in the clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Malefactive)
has super-classes
case featurec

malefactor rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MalefactorRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#maleficiaryRole
A maleficiary (malefactor) instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who stands to undergoe a misfortune, or be at a disadvantage in some way from the event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#maleficiaryRole)
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

manner adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MannerAdverb

Current version:
DEPRECATED: equivalent to Adverb and hasSemanticRole some MannerRole from ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#MannerAdverb
is equivalent to
adverbc and (has semantic roleop some manner rolec)
has super-classes
adverbc

manner nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MannerNoun

Current version:
deprecated, as merely a shorthand for CommonNoun and hasSemanticRole some MannerRole
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun expressing a manner
is equivalent to
common nounc and (has semantic roleop some manner rolec)

manner rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MannerRole

Current version:
added in conformance with the SFB632 annotation scheme (Dipper et al. 2007)
Manner applies to constituents that denote how something is carried out. Adverbs may also denote manner, however, they are not annotated at any of the syntactic layers. (Dipper et al. 2007, §5.3.11)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

masculinec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Masculine

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#masculineGender
Masculine gender is a grammatical gender that marks nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. having human or animal male referents, and often marks nouns having referents that do not have distinctions of sex. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsMasculineGender.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
gender featurec

masdarc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Masdar

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
property that expresses a verbal idea under an abstract form. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2224) the verbal noun present in Arabic and various Caucasian languages, such as Georgian and North-Caucasian languages. This grammatical term is an Arabic word, used later as a specialized, technical term to name the verbal noun in Arabic and Caucasian grammar. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masdar)
has super-classes
verbal nounc

mass nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MassNoun

Current version:
EAGLES Noun with Countability="Mass".
A mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) can't be modified by a numeral, occur in singular/plural or co-occur with the relevant kind of determiner. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_noun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
nounc and (has countabilityop some uncountablec)

measure argumentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MeasureArgument

Current version:
TODO: check definition
added in conformance with TIGER
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

mediopassive voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MediopassiveVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice which subsumes both the middle voice and the passive voice
is equivalent to
middle voicec or passive voicec
has super-classes
voice featurec

mental abilitive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MentalAbilitiveModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
MentalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the capacity to perform some mental action [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77].
has super-classes
abilitative modalityc

middle fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MiddleField

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

middle voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MiddleVoice

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#middleVoice
A verb that appears active but expresses a passive action may be called middle voice, e.g. 'The chicken cooked in the oven'. In Greek the middle voice is often reflexive expressing a causative reading or that the action is performed for one's own benefit. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#middleVoice)
has super-classes
voice featurec
has sub-classes
deponent middlec, nucleonic middlec, plain middlec, reciprocal middlec, reflexive middlec

mixed inflectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MixedInflection

Current version:
EAGLES
German mixed inflection takes its name from the fact that it has endings from both the strong inflection and the weak inflection. The mixed inflection is used after the indefinite article "ein" and after "irgendein" e.g. "(irgend) ein kleines Kind", after "kein" or after possessive pronouns e.g. "ihr kleines Kind". (http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Adjektiv/Deklinationstyp/Gemischt.html?MenuId=Word3132 20.11.06) Mixed inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.
has super-classes
inflection type featurec

modal particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ModalParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle which functions as a modal. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1920)
has super-classes
particlec

modal verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ModalVerb

Current version:
TODO: rename to semiauxiliary, this seems to be a more language-independent term
Verb form that is usually used with another verb to express ideas such as possibilities, permission, or intention. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1329) A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. The use of auxiliary verbs to express modality is characteristic of Germanic languages. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_verb 19.09.06) In addition to main and auxiliary verbs, it may be useful (e.g. in English) to recognise an intermediate category of semi-auxiliary for such verbs as be going to, have got to, ought to. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1v 20.09.06) The auxiliaries in English subdivide into the primary verbs `be', `have', and `do', which can also function as main verbs, and the modal auxiliaries such as `can', `will', and `would', which are uninflected, and always function as auxiliaries. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/morphsyn/node158.html#SECTION00054800000000000000)
has super-classes
auxiliary verbc

modality featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#ModalityFeature

Current version:
note that Modality overlaps with SentenceType (cf. InterrogativeModality besides Question, DeclarativeModality vs. DeclarativeSentence, etc.). The main difference between both is the restriction of SentenceType to full sentences as a basis of analysis. Any updates should maintain this relationship.
has super-classes
has modalityop
has sub-classes
abilitative modalityc, admonitive modalityc, categorical modalityc, causal modalityc, conditionalc, debitive modalityc, declarative modalityc, dubitive modalityc, epistemic possibility modalityc, evaluative propertyc, interrogative modalityc, irrealis modalityc, obligative modalityc, optative modalityc, permissive modalityc, quotative modalityc, relative modalityc, subjunctive modalityc, timitive modalityc, volitive forcec
is in range of
has modalityop

modality marking adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ModalityMarkingAdverb

Current version:
despite the deviating terminology, this seems to be a subconcept of VerbalParticle, and maybe, it corresponds to ModalParticle (but only if the DCR definition is incorrect)
A modality-marking adverb is a verbal particle that serves to indicate mood, aspect and/or tense (cf. Schmidt 1999). Note that this is not to be confused with the conventional meaning of "modal adverb" in the sense of "manner adverb" (cf. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_modal_adverbs), hence the uncommon name. Ruth Laila Schmidt (1999) Urdu, an essential grammar, Routledge, London.
has super-classes
adverbc
verbal particlec

modernc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ModernUsage

Current version:
subClassOf dating (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Currently in use. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1962)
has super-classes
datingc

modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Modifier

Current version:
added in conformance with TIGER, equivalent to SyntacticAdjunct, cf. definition by Dipper et al. (2007) there
added in conformance with TIGER
is equivalent to
syntactic adjunctc
has super-classes
syntactic rolec
has sub-classes
Qualifierc, adverbial modifierc, nominal modifierc, rhetorical modifierc

modifier adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ModifierAdverb

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ModifierAdverb
Adverb/Type="modifier" is used in the English, Romanian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. For Romanian, Adverb/Type="modifier" applies to adverbs which can have predicative role, that is they can govern a subordinate sentence (ex. Fireşte că o ştiu -- Certainly I know it). Here (for uniformity within a multilingual environment), they are squeezed into the modifier class. (MTE v4) e.g., better (en) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ModifierAdverb)
has super-classes
adverbc

mood featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#MoodFeature

Current version:
Mood feature pertains to grammaticalized moods (as expressed in verbal inflection), Modality refers to the underlying concept that can also be manifested by other grammatical or orthographic markers. Every Mood concept however, entails the corresponding Modality, hence modelled as subsmption between these.
has super-classes
has moodop
has sub-classes
abilitative moodc, actional forcec, causal moodc, conditionalc, debitive moodc, declarative moodc, dubitive moodc, habitual moodc, imperative moodc, indicative moodc, irrealis moodc, optative moodc, presumptive moodc, quotative moodc, quotative verbc, relative moodc, subjunctive moodc, timitive moodc
is in range of
has moodop

morphemec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Morpheme

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1330
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAMorpheme.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1330)
has super-classes
morphological categoryc
has sub-classes
affixc, basec, cliticnessc, cliticnessc, focus markerc, morphological particlec, rootc

morphological particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MorphologicalParticle

Current version:
added in accordance with TIGER MorphologicalParticle
added in accordance with TIGER MorphologicalParticle
is equivalent to
morphemec and tokenc
has super-classes
morphemec
tokenc

movement featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#MovementFeature

Current version:
2016/08/29 introduced to account for raising and control features in lexinfo
has super-classes
has movement featureop
has sub-classes
controlc, raisingc
is in range of
has movement featureop

multal numberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Multal

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Multal is a number property that refers to a large number of individuals.
has super-classes
number featurec

multiple numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MultipleNumeral

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultipleNumeral, http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#MultiplicativeNumeral; As "manyfold" fits Ghostwick's definition, MultipleNumeral is modelled as a subclass of Quantifier rather than Numeral. In MULTEXT-East, "Numeral" was extended to coover non-numerical quantifiers, hence the name.
A Multiple Numeral serves to define a complex whole, with respect to the number of its parts, e.g., English "twofold", "twice" or "manyfold". Used in morphosyntactic descriptions of, e.g., Romanian, Slovak and Czech. (Joseph Ghostwick [1878], English language -- Grammar, Historical, London, Longmans, Green, and Co.; http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultipleNumeral)
has super-classes
quantifierc

multiplicative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MultiplicativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultiplicativeCase
A case used in the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, e.g., tizennegyedszer/tizennegyed, tucatszor/tucat, tízezredszer/tízezred (hu) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultiplicativeCase)
has super-classes
case featurec

multiplicative markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#MultiplicativeMarker

Current version:
introduced for Urdu gunâ (http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#MultiplicativeMarker)
In Urdu, multiplicative numerals are formed by adding the suffix gunâ (Schmidt 1999, p. 260,http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#MultiplicativeMarker)
has super-classes
uniquec

named entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NamedEntity

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2275
segment of text for which one or many rigid designators stands for the referent (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2275)
has super-classes
discourse entityc

near futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NearFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearFuture, classified as Future here
adopted from GOLD, no definition given there (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearFuture)
has super-classes
futurec

necessitative passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NecessitativePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessitativePassive
A passive in Irish in which the preposition "with" is used, and a semantic meaning of necessity is added. (Noonan 1994:280) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessitativePassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

negativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Negation

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
denotes the negation or the absence (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1839) http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Negated: Negative="yes" encodes negative verbal word-forms in Slavic languages and Estonian. (MTE v4) In Slovak, for example, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "byť" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, Slovak "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'n' except for two verbs: 'nïman' / not to have, 'nïsi' / not to be. (MTE v4)
has super-classes
polarity featurec

negative adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NegativeAdverb

Current version:
to be modelled as SemanticRole (cf. CausalAdverb) ?
Adverb/Type="negative" are used in the Serbian and Romanian MTE v4 specs, e.g., for Romanian nicăieri - nowhere, niciodată - never. (MTE v4) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeAdverb)
has super-classes
adverbc

negative determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NegativeDeterminer

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeDeterminer
Determiner/Type="negative" (Romanian)<br/> In Romanian the negative determiner is expressed by the unit nici + indefinite article (e.g. nici un, nici o). (MTE v4) e.g., nici-o/nici_un, nici_o/nici_un, nici_un, nici_unei/nici_un, nici_unii/nici_un, nici_unor/nici_un, nici_unui/nici_un (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeDeterminer)
has super-classes
indefinite determinerc

negative particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NegativeParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle used to express negation. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1894)
has super-classes
particlec

negative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NegativePronoun

Current version:
subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA), reclassification as IndefinitePronoun follows EAGLES and STTS praxis
Pronoun used in a context of a negation or for expressing a negation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1925)
has super-classes
indefinite pronounc

neuterc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Neuter

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#neuterGender
Neuter gender is a grammatical gender that includes those nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. having referents which do not have distinctions of sex, and often includes some which do have a natural sex distinction. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsNeuterGender.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
gender featurec

nominalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Nominal

Current version:
Bies et al. 1995
-NOM (nominal) — marks free (“headless”) relatives and gerunds when they act nominally. (See section 9 [WH-Phrases] for more information about free relatives, and section 13 [Gerunds and Participles] for more information about gerunds.) (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
syntactic functionc

nominal modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AdnominalConstituent

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#nominalModifier
Each element in a construction is called adnominal that modifies a nominal, such as, all types of attributives, such as adjectives, possessives, prepositional attributes and relative clauses, such as the beautiful house; the neighbour’s house, the house at the sea, the house, that I want. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#nominalModifier)
has super-classes
modifierc
has sub-classes
adjectival modifierc, demonstrative modifierc, genitive attributec, measure argumentc, numeral modifierc, post nominal modifierc, pre nominal modifierc

nominal numberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NominalNumber

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chunkgu et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#NominalNumber)
Nominal numbers are used to identify or refer the things. It does not show the quantity or rank. Example: ངེ་གི་ འགལ་འཕིན་ ཨང་གངས་ འདི་ ༡༧༦༤༩༠༣༧ ཨིན། NGIGI DRUELTHRIN ANGDRANG 'DI 17649037 INN my mobile number is 17649037 be “ My mobile number is 17649037.” (Jurmey Rabgay, email Sep 20, 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#NominalNumber)
has super-classes
numeralc

nominal predicatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NominalPredicate

Current version:
added in conformance with SFB632 annotation guidelines (Dipper et al., 2007)
A nominal predicate (noun or adjective), either with or without copula. The term nominal predicate may be used for the complements of further copulative verbs (cf. small clauses), e.g. "consider", "call", etc. (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.5)
has super-classes
predicatec

nominalizationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Nominalization

Current version:
TODO: compare against Lehmann, Handbuch Relativsätze
has super-classes
derivationc

nominalized verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NominalizedVerb

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withNominalProperites
A non-finite embedded construction which contains features with nominal properties (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withNominalProperites, with reference to Dik 1997)
has super-classes
non finite embedded constructionc

nominativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Nominative

Current version:
EAGLES
In nominative-accusative languages, nominative case marks clausal subjects and is applies to nouns in isolation. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsNominativeCase.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
case featurec

non agentive verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonAgentiveVerb

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#NonAgentiveVerb
A non-agentive verb is a type of verb, which indicates an action without the doer. Example: ང་མ་ འ ར་ ས། 'lungma phur-dä 'A wind is blowing' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
main verbc

non emphaticc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonEmphatic

Current version:
added in accordance with ILPOSTS, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticPronoun
In languages where emphasis can be grammatically marked, the unmarked form would be considered NonEmphatic, see #Emphatic
has super-classes
emphasis featurec

non finite embedded constructionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonFiniteEmbeddedConstruction

An embedded construction which contains a non-finite verb form (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#non-finiteEmbeddedConstruction with reference to Dik 1997)
has super-classes
clausec
has sub-classes
infinitival clausec, nominalized verbc, participle constructionc

non finite verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonFiniteVerb

Current version:
EAGLES Verb with Finiteness="Non-finite".
Verb forms occurring on their own only in dependent clauses and lacking tense and mood contrasts. (adapted from Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1332) A non-finite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for categories that are marked inflectionally in a language, such as the following: Tense, Aspect, Modality, Number, Person. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsANonfiniteVerb.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
verbc
has sub-classes
converbc, gerundc, infinitivec, participlec, verbal nounc

non initialc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonInitial

Current version:
EAGLES, reimplemented as subhierarchy of CoordinatingConjunction
When two distinct words occur, as in German weder...noch..., then the second is given the Non-initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coord type featurec

non initial coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonInitialCoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
EAGLES
When two distinct words occur, as in German weder...noch..., then the second is given the Non-initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc

non inverse passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonInversePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Passive Unlike the GOLD definition, Passive is often not clearly distinguished from Inverse: According to Givón (1988), Inverse is characterized by obligatory realization of the suppressed agent, whereas the realization of the agent in a passive construction is optional (or impossible). This restrictive definition of passive does, however, conflict with the use of the term "passive" for European languages. Then, English and German "Passive" would be Inverses. Therefore, Inverse is a subconcept of Passive here. Givón's original Passive is NonInversePassive.
An agent-demoting voice construction where the realization of the demoted agent is not obligatory (against Inverse). In terminological systems that distinguish "InverseVoice" from "Passive" (e.g., Givon, 1988), this is the "Passive" concept. (Ch. Chiarcos) Associated with actions performed on the subject by an unspecified agent. (McIntosh 1984:108) Refers to the category of verb forms, typically identifies with a specific morphological marking, that encode the derived diatheses in which the agent role is not linked with a subject noun phrase (Shibatani 1995:7) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Passive)
has super-classes
passive voicec
is disjoint with
inverse voicec

non negatedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonNegated

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonNegated
Non-negated verbs carry no morphological marks of negation. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'no' except for two verbs: 'nïman' / not to have, 'nïsi' / not to be. In Slovak, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "byť" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonNegated)
has super-classes
polarity featurec

non reflexivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonReflexive

Current version:
TODO: remove
A non-reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object) are not the same. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verbs 20.11.06)
has super-classes
reflexivity featurec

non separablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonSeparable

Current version:
EAGLES; note that UbyPos extends separability to particles
Non-separable verbs are not composed of a verb stem and a separable affix. (cf. SeparabilityFeature: Separable)
has super-classes
separability featurec

nonabsolutive antipassivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonabsolutiveAntipassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonabsolutiveAntipassive
An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is overtly downgraded. (Klaiman 1991:232) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonabsolutiveAntipassive)
has super-classes
antipassivec

nonfinite verb phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonfiniteVerbPhrase

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
has super-classes
verb phrasec
has sub-classes
gerund verb phrasec, infinitive verb phrasec

nonpromotional inverse voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonpromotionalInverseVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonpromotionalInverse
Involves demotion of the non-topical obviate-agent from subjecthood. (Givon 1994:24) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonpromotionalInverse)
has super-classes
inverse voicec

nonreduced inflectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonreducedInflection

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CompoundAdjective
Nonreduced adjective inflection of Slavic languages, e.g., Czech nejubožejšími/ubohý, nejvyspělejších/vyspělý, nejvyšších/vysoký, nejvznešenějšímu/vznešený, nejvážnějšímu/vážný, nejvýznamnějších/významný, nejvýznamnějšími/významný, nejvýznamnějšímu/významný, největšími/velký (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CompoundAdjective)
has super-classes
strength featurec

nonspecificc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Nonspecific

Current version:
see olia:NonspecificArticle, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun
"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf) A nonspecific pronoun refers to an unidentified or general entity (e.g., "I saw *someone*", "I saw *everyone*"). A nonspecific pronoun is not, therefore, a personal pronoun, but an indefinite one. (Andrews 2003). Andrews, Richard J. (2003), Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), An introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun)
has super-classes
specificity featurec

nonspecific articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonspecificArticle

Current version:
introduced in analogy with SpecificArticle
"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)
has super-classes
articlec

nonspecific pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NonspecificPronoun

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun
In the Russian MTE v4 specs, Pronoun/Type="nonspecific" marks the following Russian words: весь 'all', всякий 'any, every', сам 'oneself', самый 'the very', каждый 'every, each', иной 'other', любой 'any', другой 'other'. The name "nonspecific" follows Halliday (1985, Section 6.2.1.1). (MTE v4) A nonspecific pronoun refers to an unidentified or general entity (e.g., "I saw *someone*", "I saw *everyone*"). A nonspecific pronoun is not, therefore, a personal pronoun, but an indefinite one. (Andrews 2003). Andrews, Richard J. (2003), Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), An introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun)
has super-classes
indefinite pronounc
has specificityop some nonspecificc

not temporally anchoredc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NotTemporallyAnchored

Current version:
A replacement for TDS Habitual that is modelled here as an Aspect: Habitual tense pertains to verbs which refer to an action that occurs repeatedly. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense)
To be used for actions that are not bound to a particular reference point.
has super-classes
tense featurec

nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Noun

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category "Noun".
A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. The word "noun" derives from the Latin 'nomen' meaning "name", and a traditional definition of nouns is that they are all and only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, idea or an appointment. They serve as the subject or object of a verb, and the object of a preposition. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
common nounc, diminutive nounc, proper namec, voice nounc
is in domain of
has countabilityop

noun headed phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NounHeadedPhrase

A NounHeadedPhrase takes a nominal as its (semantic) head. Introduced as a generalization over NounPhrase and PrepositionalPhrase for reasons of consistency with dependency parsers like Connexor where this differentiation is not made.
has super-classes
phrasec
has sub-classes
noun phrasec, prepositional phrasec

noun phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NounPhrase

At phrase level, the noun phrase is probably the least problematic of the categories to be dealt with. In general, a noun phrase will a have noun or a pronoun as its head, and included within the noun phrase are the determinative elements, any premodification, and any postmodification. The examples below, 14 to 17 show noun phrases with the head noun/pronoun in bold: (14) [NP He NP] was a tiny man (15) [NP his white shirt cuffs NP] (16) [NP his surprisingly thick and hairy wrists NP] (17) [NP some wholly unanticipated but remotely possible event of absorbing interest NP] However, noun phrases may also occur with adjectival heads, as in 18 and 19: (18) [NP The unemployed NP] have had enough (19) We've beaten [NP the best NP] or with a head which is a cardinal or ordinal number, as in 20 and 21: (20) [NP The ninth NP] is my particular favourite (21) [NP The other seven NP] continued with the trip In `pro-drop' languages, such as Spanish and Italian, pronominal Subjects are usually not expressed. Depending on the chosen type of analysis, this may require another definition of noun phrase, in order to include `empty noun phrases', in which the pronoun is not actually present, but may be inferred from the verb ending. A classic constituency test for Noun Phrases is that only whole NPs can be moved within the same sentence. In English, constituents can be preposed to achieve some effect, as in 23 (from Radford 1988: 70): (22) I can't stand your elder sister (23) Your elder sister I can't stand (though your brother's OK). Examples 24 and 25 show that it is not possible to move only part of the NP: (24) *Your elder I can't stand sister (25) *Elder sister, I can't stand your However, this test should be used with caution. It works well in English, but not always in other languages. For example, in 26 Neue Bücher is moved to the beginning of the sentence while keine is left at the end: (26) Neue Bücher habe ich keine new books have I no `I have not got any new books' (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node32.html)
has super-classes
noun headed phrasec
has sub-classes
w h noun phrasec

nucleonic middlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NucleonicMiddle

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NucleonicMiddle
Object of action belongs to. Moves into, or moves from sphere of subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NucleonicMiddle)
has super-classes
middle voicec

number featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#NumberFeature

Current version:
TODO: extend with TDS numberProperty and GOLD NumberValue
has super-classes
has numberop
has sub-classes
collectivec, count numberc, dualc, multal numberc, paucalc, pluralc, quadrialc, singularc, trialc
is in range of
has numberop, has object numberop, owned numberop, subject numberop

numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Numeral

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Numeral (NU). Modelled as subclass of Quantifier (a concept that is absent in EAGLES) in accordance with GOLD. DCR subclassification (numberBoth, numeralRoman) ignored
A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number, and relation to the number, such as one of the following: Quantity, Sequence, Frequency, Fraction. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsANumeral.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
quantifierc
has sub-classes
approximate numeralc, cardinal numberc, collective numeralc, digit numeralc, fractional numeralc, letter numeralc, nominal numberc, numeral bothc, ordinal numberc, roman numeralc

numeral agreement classc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#NumeralAgreementClass

has super-classes
has numeral agreement classop
has sub-classes
dual quantifierc, paucal quantifierc, plural quantifierc, singular quantifierc
is in range of
has numeral agreement classop

numeral bothc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NumeralBoth

Current version:
The ISOcat definition entails that this just represents the value of "2". I guess, this is not true, but that this Numeral is actually a DualQuantifier (and should be renamed as such), otherwise, it should be eliminated
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Numeric value for two.
has super-classes
numeralc

numeral modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NumeralModifier

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#numeralModifier
A nominal is modified by a numeral. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#numeralModifier)
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

object controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObjectControl

Current version:
http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#ObjectControl
Indicates the object of the main clause is also the (omitted) object of the subclause (http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#ObjectControl)
has super-classes
controlc

objective casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObjectiveCase

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Case used to express the direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, object complement and subject of an infinitive.
has super-classes
case featurec

obligative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObligativeModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
ObligativeModality indicates that an agent is required to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71].
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
weak obligative modalityc

oblique casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObliqueCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1336; in EAGLES applied to non-subject pronouns in English and Dutch
Case that is used when a noun is the object of a verb or a proposition, except for nominative and vocative case. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1336)
has super-classes
case featurec

oblique passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObliquePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliquePassive
A Passive in which a basic Oblique nominal assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. Can include locative passives, benefactive passives and instrumental passives. (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliquePassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

oblique rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ObliqueRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#obliqueRole
A semantic role which is not straightforward. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#obliqueCase)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

oldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OldUsage

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1961
Used in the past. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1961)
has super-classes
datingc

omitted unitc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OmittedUnit

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)
*U* â ´ unit ... This element marks the interpreted position of a unit symbol, such as $, # (British pounds), FFr (French francs), C$, US$, HK$, A$, M$, S$, and NZ$. It may also appear after % or even cents, when convenient. See section 11 [Modification of NP] for more details on the use of *U*. ... In general, *U* is placed where the word corresponding to the symbol would appear in the string if the text were read aloud. One notable exception is in certain hyphenated compound adjectives, such as a $5-a-share increase (spoken: â ¼A five dollar a share increaseâ ½). Here, the bracketing will usually not reflect the spoken order, with *U* placed as the last element in the ADJP: (NP a (ADJP $ 5-a-share *U*) increase) Sometimes, this type may lack the *U* entirely. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
null elementc

once nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OnceNoun

Current version:
onceNoun [DC-3853] ``noun conveying the meaning that the action is performed once''. Clearly, this noun carries a meaning that is closely related to aspect information (e.g., SemelfactiveAspect), but as aspect is a verb-centered concept, it would have been counter-intuitive to model this as Noun and hasAspect some SemelfactiveAspect. Hence, this concept is directly adopted in the OLiA Reference Model, but marked as deprecated until an ontologically satisfying modeling of aspect-related features of nouns has been achieved.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun conveying the meaning that the action is performed once
has super-classes
common nounc

onomatopoetic wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OnomatopoeticWord

Current version:
Bambara Reference Corpus "Onomatopée", http://cormand.huma-num.fr
no definition given
has super-classes
residualc

open angle bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenAngleBracket

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991
< *LAB* Left angle bracket (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

open bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenBracket

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2082
Punctuation that is represented graphically as [ (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2082)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

open curly bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenCurlyBracket

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2084
Punctuation that is graphically represented as { (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2084)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

open parenthesisc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenParenthesis

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Beginning of a pair of parenthesis. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1442)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

open quotec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenQuote

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#OpenQuotationMark
quotation mark, opening
has super-classes
quotec

open square bracketc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OpenSquareBracket

Current version:
PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991
[ *LSB* Left square bracket (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc

optative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OptativeModality

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#optativeModality
Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
optative moodc

optative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OptativeMood

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#optativeModality
Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative)
has super-classes
mood featurec
optative modalityc

ordinal adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OrdinalAdjective

Current version:
subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)
Adjective expressing a numeric ranking. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1338) Cf. "second", "next", "last"
is equivalent to
relational adjectivec
has super-classes
adjectivec

ordinal numberc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OrdinalNumber

Current version:
EAGLES Numeral with Type="Ordinal".
An ordinal number is a number belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence, e.g. in English "First", "Second", "Third". (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAOrdinalNumeral.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
numeralc

other animacyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OtherAnimacy

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1953
Perceived as related to animacy, but without specific reference to the previous items. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1953)
has super-classes
animacy featurec

other source evidentialityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#OtherSourceEvidentiality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
An indication that the source of information is someone other than the speaker. [Aikhenvald 2006: 106]
has super-classes
evidentiality featurec

parenthetical punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ParentheticalPunctuation

Current version:
added in conformance with Penn Treebank Bracketing Guidelines (Bies et al. 1995)
Parenthetical elements are dominated by a node labeled PRN. Punctuation marks that set off a parenthetical (i.e., commas, dashes, parentheses (-LRB- and -RRB-)) are contained within the PRN node. Use of PRN is determined ultimately by individual annotator intuition, though the presence of dashes or parentheses strongly suggests a parenthetical. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
secondary punctuationc
has sub-classes
left parenthetical punctuationc, right parenthetical punctuationc

participlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Participle

Current version:
EAGLES NonFinite with VerbForm="Participle".
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A participle is a lexical item, derived from a verb that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives. In English, participles may be used as adjectives, and in non-finite forms of verbs. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAParticiple.htm 19.09.06) Non-finite form of a verb other than the infinitive that is used in many languages possibly in conjunction with an auxiliary and that functions attributively, predicatively or adverbially. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1341)
has super-classes
non finite verbc
has sub-classes
adverbial participlec, conditional participlec, ingc, participle adjectivec, past participlec, present participlec

participle adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ParticipleAdjective

Current version:
subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)
Adjective based on a verb. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1598)
has super-classes
adjectivec
participlec
has sub-classes
past participle adjectivec, present participle adjectivec

participle constructionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#EmbeddedParticiple

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withParticipleAsHead, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ParticipialConstruction
A participle is the head of the embedded construction. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withParticipleAsHead) Participial constructions are used as adjunct clauses in Old High German. As they lack a finite verb form they are kept separately from finite subordinate clauses. (http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ParticipialConstruction)
has super-classes
non finite embedded constructionc

particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Particle

Current version:
synonym of Unique, to be avoided because of its divergent definitions, applies to every category that *contains* the expression "Particle" in its name
synonym of Unique, to be avoided because of its divergent definitions (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
uniquec
has sub-classes
adjectival particlec, comparative particlec, conditional particulec, contrastive particlec, coordination particlec, distinctive particlec, emphatic particlec, existential particlec, interrogative particlec, modal particlec, negative particlec, particle adverbc, particule affirmativec, possessive particlec, preverbal particlec, relative particlec, superlative particlec, verbal particlec

particle adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ParticleAdverb

Current version:
merely a shorthand for the intersection of Adverb and Particle, hence deprecated
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Word that is both an adverb and a particle.
is equivalent to
adverbc and particlec
has super-classes
adverbc
particlec

particule affirmativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#AffirmativeParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle used to express affirmation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1918)
has super-classes
particlec

partitive articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PartitiveArticle

Current version:
TODO: Check relationship with PartitiveDeterminer
A partitive article indicates an indefinite quantity of a mass noun; there is no partitive article in English, though the words some or any often have that function. An example is French du / de la / des, as in Voulez-vous du café? ("Do you want some coffee?" or "Do you want coffee"). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_(grammar) 19.09.06)
has super-classes
articlec

partitive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PartitiveCase

Current version:
TDS ontology; http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Partitive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2003
The partitive case is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity". (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#partitiveCase with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partitive) PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk, et al. 1985: 249; Gove, et al. 1966: 1648; Sebeok 1946: 1214). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Partitive)
has super-classes
case featurec

partitive determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PartitiveDeterminer

Current version:
TODO: Check the relationship between PartitiveDeterminer and PartitiveCase: The partitive case is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity" (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#partitiveCase, with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partitive). PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some'. (GOLD, "Partitive"; see there for references)
A partitive determiner indicates an indefinite quantity of a mass noun; there is no partitive article in English, though the words some or any often have that function. (Wilson and Leech 1996)
has super-classes
determinerc

passive voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PassiveVoice

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#passiveVoice
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_voice 17.11.06) When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#passiveVoice) Passive is often not clearly distinguished from Inverse: According to Givón (1988), Inverse is characterized by obligatory realization of the suppressed agent, whereas the realization of the agent in a passive construction is optional (or impossible). This restrictive definition of passive does, however, conflict with the use of the term "passive" for European languages. Then, English and German "Passive" would be Inverses. Therefore, Inverse is a subconcept of Passive here. Givón's original Passive is NonInversePassive.
has super-classes
voice featurec
has sub-classes
agent deletion passivec, impersonal passivec, inverse voicec, locative passivec, necessitative passivec, non inverse passivec, oblique passivec, personal passivec, progressive passivec, pseudopassive voicec, reflexive passivec

pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Past

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#pastTense
The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_tense 17.11.06) The past tense refers to a tense category which places an event in the past. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#pastTense)
has super-classes
absolute tensec
has sub-classes
aoristc, hesternal pastc, hodiernal pastc, immediate pastc, recent pastc, remote pastc, simple pastc, still presentc

past in futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PastInFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInFuture
Locates the situation in question in the future, prior to a reference time in the future.
has super-classes
absolute-relative tensec

past participlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PastParticiple

Current version:
introduced as a shorthand for Participle and hasTense some Past
is equivalent to
participlec and (has tenseop some pastc)
has super-classes
participlec
has sub-classes
past participle adjectivec

past participle adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PastParticipleAdjective

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1596
Adjective based on a past participle. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1596)
has super-classes
participle adjectivec
past participlec

Past perfectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PastPerfectTense

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1348
Past perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time in the past relative to a reference point, which itself is in the past relative to the moment of utterance (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsPastPerfectTense.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1348)
has super-classes
absolute-relative tensec

path rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PathRole

Current version:
added in accordance with TIGER way (directional modifier)
added in accordance with TIGER way (directional modifier)
has super-classes
direction rolec

patient rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PatientRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#patientRole
A patient instantiates the role of an entity which undergoes a change of state (Cruse 2000:284) http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#patientRole
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

paucalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Paucal

Current version:
TODO: rename to PaucalNumber, because of the existence of PaucalQuantifier in MULTEXT-East
Number that specifies 'a few' things. (en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paucal_number; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1350)
has super-classes
number featurec

paucal quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PaucalQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PaucalQuantifier
Quantifiers that enforce paucal agreement. In many Slavic languages, numerals between 2 and 4 (and some quantifiers) involve a specific agreement patterns that is different from that of smaller and greater numbers. In Russian, for example, genitive singular is requires. These numerals and quantifiers with the same characteristics are referred to here as "paucal quantifiers". (cf. David Pesetsky, http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~jtrommer/Harvard/pesetsky.pdf)
is equivalent to
quantifierc and (has numeral agreement classop some paucal quantifierc)
has super-classes
numeral agreement classc

pejorative evaluativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PejorativeEvaluative

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
An evaluative property of a noun that indicates the speaker regards the person or object being referred to with distaste, contempt, or displeasure [Valentine 2001: 190-193].
has super-classes
evaluative featurec

Perfectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Perfect

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1351, modelled as an absolute tense here
A verb tense that refers to completed action in the past. It corresponds to three English tenses. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1351)
has super-classes
absolute tensec

perfective aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PerfectiveAspect

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perfective
The perfective aspects (inceptive, punctual and completive) view the situation as a bounded entity, and often put an emphasis on its beginning or end. (Bybee 1985:21) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#perfectiveAspect) The Perfective aspect is an aspect that expresses a temporal view of an event or state as a simple whole, apart from the consideration of the internal structure of the time in which it occurs. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsPerfectiveAspect.htm 17.11.06) A viewpoint aspect which encodes the speaker’s willingness to attend to the endpoints of the situation referred to. Perfective aspect is the canonical mode of presentation for events (Michaelis 1998: xv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perfective)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

periodic adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PeriodicAdjective

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#PeriodicAdjective
It is an adjective, which expresses the time or period of the circumstances, while modifying a noun. ན་ ང་ ང་ ་ ལ་ ་ འ ་ ། Nahing Nga chigyel-lu joyi 'I went abroad last year' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
adjectivec

perlative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PerlativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perlative
PerlativeCase expresses that something moved 'through','across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked (Blake 1998: 38, 203). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perlative)
has super-classes
case featurec

permissive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PermissiveModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
PermissiveModality indicates that an agent has permission to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Palmer 2001: 10, 71].
has super-classes
modality featurec

pers refl pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PersReflPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Pers/Ref".
In Eagles personal and reflexive pronouns are brought together as a single value Pers./Refl. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recp 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pronounc
has sub-classes
determinal pronounc, first person pronounc, irreflexive personal pronounc, reciprocal pronounc, reflexive pronounc, second person pronounc, third person pronounc

person featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#PersonFeature

has super-classes
has personop
has sub-classes
first personc, secondc, thirdc
is in range of
has personop, object personop, owner personop

personalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Personal

Current version:
subClassOf referentType (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Property that refers to the person. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1946)
has super-classes
referent type featurec

personal passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PersonalPassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPassive
A Passive in which the argument mapped to Object in a basic structural configuration assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

phasal aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PhasalAspect

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#phaseAspect, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phasal
A set of aspectual distinctions involving relations between a background situation (the reference situation) and a situation located relative to the reference situation (the denoted situation). In English, phasal distinctions are expressed by auxiliary-headed constructions, like the inceptive, progressive, and perfect constructions, whose head verbs express the aspectual class of the denoted situation. The aspectual class of the denoted situation differs from that of the reference situation (Michaelis 1998:xv). An event may have a beginning and an end, a middle portion (continuing or changing), and also an ensuing result or an altered state. These are considered to be the various “phases‽ of an event. A speaker may talk about an event from the point of view of any of these individual phases, and his language may have inflectional (or other type of) markers for representing these distinctions. Since such markers indicate distinctions in the temporal structure of an event, we may regard them as belonging to the category of aspect. It has been suggested (Dik 1989: 186) that these may be grouped under a subcategory (or “level") of aspect called “phasal aspect". (Bhat 1999:49) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phasal)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Phrase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase
Phrase is the class of syntactic constructions that consist of one or more syntactic words, but lack the subject-predicate organization of a clause. Phrases get their grammatical characteristics according to what word occupies the head position; thus, all phrases have heads [Crystal 1980, 232-233; Pei and Gaynor 1954, 169; Pike and Pike 1982, 453]. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase)
has super-classes
constituentc
has sub-classes
adjective phrasec, adverb phrasec, conjunction phrasec, coordinationc, determiner phrasec, foreign phrasec, noun headed phrasec, verb phrasec

phrasemec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Phraseme

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl#phraseme, no definition there
Conventional lexical unit consisting of a particular phrase (CC)
is equivalent to
lexical unitc and phrasec
has super-classes
fixed expressionc

physical abilitive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PhysicalAbilitiveModality

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
PhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the physical capacity to perform some action. [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]
has super-classes
abilitative modalityc

place nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PlaceNoun

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
noun expressing a location, equivalent to ProperNoun and hasSemanticRole some LocationRole
is equivalent to
proper namec and (has semantic roleop some location rolec)
has super-classes
proper namec

plain middlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PlainMiddle

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainMiddle
Results of action occur to subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainMiddle)
has super-classes
middle voicec

pluperfect tensec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PluperfectTense

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInPast, classified as absolute-relative tense here.
PastInPast tense locates the situation in question prior to a reference time in the past. Also known as PluperfectTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInPast)
has super-classes
absolute-relative tensec

pluralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Plural

Current version:
EAGLES
Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. In English, nouns, pronouns, and demonstratives inflect for plurality. In many other languages, for example German and the various Romance languages, articles and adjectives also inflect for plurality. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plural 17.11.06)
has super-classes
number featurec
has sub-classes
broken pluralc

plural quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PluralQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PluralQuantifier Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite).
A PluralQuantifier is a Quantifier (or Numeral) that specifies a large multitude of entities. The agreement pattern of a plural quantifier is different from that or an singular quantifier, but as opposed to DualQuantifier and PaucalQuantifier, PluralQuantifier includes quantifiers that denote arbitrarily large sets of entities. (Chiarcos) The corresponding category in Czech, Polish and Slovak MTE v4 specs is Numeral/Class="definite", that refers to numerals larger than four. (MTE v4)
is equivalent to
quantifierc and (has numeral agreement classop some plural quantifierc)
has super-classes
numeral agreement classc

point of view aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PointOfViewAspect

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#viewPointAspect
point of view aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#viewPointAspect)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

polarity featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#PolarityFeature

has super-classes
has polarityop
has sub-classes
negativec, non negatedc
is in range of
has polarityop

polite second person pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PoliteSecondPersonPronoun

Current version:
TODO: Politeness as feature rather than a concept.
In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)
has super-classes
second person pronounc

positioner rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PositionerRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#positionerRole
The entity controlling a Position (Dik, 1997:118) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#positionerRole)
has super-classes
actor macro rolec

positivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Positive

Current version:
EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1420
Value used in a comparison relationship when no comparison is involved. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1420) The Positive is the form of an adjective or adverb on which comparative and superlative are formed. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive 17.11.06)
has super-classes
degree featurec

possessed casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessedCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Possessed
PossessedCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is possessed by the referent of another noun. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Possessed)
has super-classes
case featurec

possession markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessionMarker

Current version:
introduced for Urdu wala, as used in the tagset by Sajjad (2007, http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#Wala)
In Urdu, wālā can be added to substantives to derive nouns implying possession or general relationships, e.g., go-wāl, or go-wālā, s.m. cow-keeper, cow-herd (from go, 'cow'), or ghar-wālā, s.m. master or owner of the house (from ghar, 'house') (Plats 1884, cf. http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#Wala)
has super-classes
uniquec

possessivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Possessive

Current version:
subClassOf referentType (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Relative to the possession or association. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=possessive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1355)
has super-classes
referent type featurec

possessive adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessiveAdjective

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveAdjective
Adjective/Type="possessive" are denominal, not pronominal expressions of possession (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09). Therefore not to be confused with Pronoun/Type=adjectival(a) (Bulgarian only), for words like умно /cleverly, wisely, sensibly/, which are derived from adjectives. (Dimitrova et al. 2009) e.g., Slovene dušikovima/dušikov, Marsovi/Marsov, Slovak vojvodova/vojvodov, vojvodove/vojvodov, vojvodovej/vojvodov, vojvodovho/vojvodov, vojvodovi/vojvodov, vojvodovmu/vojvodov, vojvodovo/vojvodov, vojvodovom/vojvodov, vojvodovou/vojvodov, Serbian evroazijske/evroazijska, evroazijskih/evroazijski, Goldštajnov, govornikov, Jehovine/Jehovin, malabarskom/malabarski, O'Brajenov, O'Brajenovog/O'Brajenov, oficirov, Czech Riegrovými/Riegrův, Stradellovými/Stradellův, Tristanovou/Tristanův, Wagnerových/Wagnerův, Wagnerovým/Wagnerův, Weberovi/Weberův, Weberových/Weberův, Wertherovi/Wertherův, Winstonovi/Winstonův (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveAdjective)
has super-classes
adjectivec

possessive articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessiveArticle

Current version:
not to be confused with PoessiveDeterminer
In Romanian, the possessive article (also called genitival article) is an element in the structure of the possessive pronoun, of the ordinal numeral (e.g. al meu (mine) and al treilea (the third)), and of the indefinite genitive forms of the nouns (e.g. capitol al cărţii (chapter of the book)), e.g., -al/al, a/al, ai/al, al, ale/al, alor/al (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveArticle)
has super-classes
articlec

possessive determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessiveDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Possessive".
A possessive determiner is a part of speech that modifies a noun by attributing ownership to someone or something. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Possessive_adjective 19.09.06)
has super-classes
attributive pronounc
possessive pronounc

possessive particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessiveParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle expressing ownship. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1895)
has super-classes
particlec

possessive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessivePronoun

Current version:
TODO: Check regrouping possibilities, as it is covered by the GOLD definition of PersonalPronoun (i.e., person marking, although no person congruency). PossessivePronoun isn't disjoint with IndefinitePronoun (German: "jemandes" nach jemandes Pfeife tanzen), DemonstrativePronoun (German:"dessen" Zähne alle exakt gleich waren), WHPronoun (German: "wessen" Bedürfnissen soll sie genügen), ReflexivePronoun (Old English "sin" his/her/its).
A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that expresses relationships like ownership, such as kinship, and other forms of association. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPossessivePronoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pronounc
has sub-classes
possessive determinerc

possessive relative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessiveRelativePronoun

Current version:
here "Pronoun" seems to refer to attributive pronoun, as the corresponding possessiverelativeDeterminer is not found in ISOcat (substitutive possessive relative pronouns [without accompanying noun] do exist, but are comparably marked, cf. "I remember whose lines these are." vs. "I remember certain lines and whose they are." In this example, the latter is actually an elliptical construction with an elided head noun)
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A relative pronoun whose antecedent is the possessor of the subject or object in the relative clause.
is equivalent to
possessive pronounc and relative pronounc

possessor rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PossessorRole

Current version:
added in conformance with Stanford Parser Dependency Labels
Semantic role as used by the Stanford Dependency Parser
has super-classes
semantic rolec

possiblec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Possible

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Value that denotes a linguistic situation considered as being correct in the given language
has super-classes
usage and frequency featurec
has sub-classes
commonly usedc, contextual variationc, datingc, geographical variantc, honorificc, infrequently usedc, rarely usedc

post hodiernal futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PostHodiernalFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PostHodiernalFuture, classified as Future here
PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PostHodiernalFuture)
has super-classes
futurec

post nominal modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PostNominalModifier

Current version:
EAGLES, NPFunction="postmodifying", http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1945 (without restriction on nominal heads ?)
Postmodifying is a function of an adjective that can modify, describe, or qualify a preceding noun. (EAGLES) modificationType: Refers to the prenominal or postnominal positions of determiners which distinguish different forms. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1931)
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

postpositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Postposition

Current version:
EAGLES adposition with the optional attribute Type="Preposition".
A postposition is an adposition that occurs after its complement. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPostposition.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
adpositionc

pragmatic inverse voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PragmaticInverseVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PragmaticInverse
If the agent is more topical than the patient, the direct-active clause is used. If norm is reversed and the patient is more topical, the inverse clause is used. (Givon 1994:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PragmaticInverse)
has super-classes
inverse voicec

pre hodiernal pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PreHodiernalPast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreHodiernalPast, classified as absolute tense
PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. According to Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98. this category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreHodiernalPast)
has super-classes
absolute tensec

pre nominal modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PreNominalModifier

Current version:
EAGLES, NPFunction="premodifying", cf. http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1943 (preModifier, but without reference to nominal heads)
Premodifying is a function of an adjective that can modify a following noun. (EAGLES) modificationType: Refers to the prenominal or postnominal positions of determiners which distinguish different forms. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1931)
has super-classes
nominal modifierc

predicatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Predicate

Current version:
adapted from http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/predicate
The predicate is the relation between the Clause and a portion of a clause, excluding the subject, that expresses something about the subject (Crystal 1980: 280; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 173; Pike and Pike 1982: 40; Mish et al. 1990: 926; Crystal 1985: 241-242). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/predicate)
has super-classes
syntactic rolec
has sub-classes
nominal predicatec, verbal predicatec

predicative adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PredicativeAdjective

Current version:
EAGLES Adjective with Use="Predicative".
A predicative adjective is one which functions as part of the predicate of a sentence. This means that it is linked to the noun by a verb, often a copula (such as to be). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective 18.09.06)
has super-classes
adjectivec

predicative markerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PredicativeMarker

Current version:
adopted from Bambara Reference Corpus, http://cormand.huma-num.fr/gloses.html
no definition given
has super-classes
verbal particlec

preferred evaluativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PreferredEvaluative

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
An evaluative property of a noun that indicates the speaker regards the person or object being referred to with favor or admiration.
has super-classes
evaluative featurec

prefixc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Prefix

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1365
Affix added before a word to change its meaning or part of speech. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1365)
has super-classes
affixc
has sub-classes
separable prefixc

prepositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Preposition

Current version:
EAGLES adposition with Type="Preposition".
A preposition is an adposition that occurs before its complement. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPreposition.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
adpositionc
has sub-classes
compound prepositionc, fused prep artc, fused prepositionc, fused preposition pronounc, prepositional adverbc, simple prepositionc

prepositional adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PrepositionalAdverb

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
adverb which is very similar in its form to a preposition
has super-classes
adverbc
prepositionc

prepositional casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PrepositionalCase

Current version:
Prepositional case is an in EAGLES optional value of CaseFeature for Spanish pronouns and determiners. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2v 15.11.06)
In many grammars, the term "prepositional case" is to refer to case marking that only occurs in combination with prepositions. Normally, this is an oblique case, e.g., the Russian 6th case, also referred to as "locative". (Ch. Chiarcos)
has super-classes
case featurec

prepositional objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PrepositionalObject

Current version:
added in conformance with SFB632 annotation guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.4)
Prepositional object
has super-classes
syntactic objectc
has sub-classes
facultative prepositional objectc

prepositional phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PrepositionalPhrase

Current version:
EAGLES
A sequence of a preposition and its complement is a prepositional phrase. The complement of a preposition is usually a noun phrase (see examples 38 to 40), but may also be a clause or an adverb phrase. According to the categories recommended here, a prepositional phrase may be analysed further into preposition and noun phrase. The examples below demonstrate how this further analysis can be a recursive procedure. (38) [PP en [NP sustitucion [PP de [NP los canales correspondientes [PP de [NP 50 baudios NP] PP] NP] PP] NP] PP]. (39) [NP Fairbanks NP] [VP hummed [NP a few bars NP] VP] [PP in [NP a voice [VP made resonant [PP by [NP the very weakness [PP of [NP his chest NP] PP] NP] PP] VP] NP] PP]. (40) [PP En [NP el caso [PP de [NP un sistema mixto [PP en [NP el [CL que [VP se utilicen [NP canales [PP con [NP tres velocidades [PP de [NP modulacion NP] PP] diferentes NP] PP] NP] VP] CL] NP] PP] NP] PP] NP] PP] In a language such as Spanish, where a large proportion of the modification of nouns takes the form of a following preposition de and another noun, this recursion is extremely prevalent, as in 40. In cases where the prepositional phrase is complemented by a one word noun phrase, it may be advantageous to leave the analysis at this point, rather than continuing to analyse further by enclosing the complement (see also one-word constituents). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node34.html#SECTION00052500000000000000)
has super-classes
noun headed phrasec
has sub-classes
w h prepositional phrasec

presentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Present

Current version:
EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#presentTense
Present tense refers to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#presentTense) Present tense refers to the moment of utterance. It often refers to events or states that do not merely coincide with the moment of utterance, such as those that are continuous, habitual, or lawlike. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsPresentTense.htm 17.11.06)
has super-classes
absolute tensec
has sub-classes
Transgressivec

present participlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PresentParticiple

Current version:
introduced as a shorthand for Participle and hasTense some Present
is equivalent to
participlec and (has tenseop some presentc)
has super-classes
participlec
has sub-classes
present participle adjectivec

present participle adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PresentParticipleAdjective

Current version:
subClassOf participleAdjective (dcif:isA)
Adjective based on a present participle. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1597)
has super-classes
participle adjectivec
present participlec

presentative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PresentativePronoun

Current version:
Should be redefined in terms of deixis
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
pronoun that identify the current locative or temporal situation
has super-classes
pronounc

presumptive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PresumptiveModality

Current version:
adopted from ILPOSTS (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PresumptiveMood) for Indian languages
The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis regarding the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability. For example, acolo s-o fi dus "he might have gone there" shows the basic presupposition use, while the following excerpt from a poem by Eminescu shows the use both in a conditional clause de-o fi "suppose it is" and in a main clause showing an attitude of submission to fate le-om duce "we would bear". De-o fi una, de-o fi alta... Ce e scris și pentru noi, Bucuroși le-om duce toate, de e pace, de-i război. Be it one, be it the other... Whatever fate we have, We will gladly go through all, be it peace or be it war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrealis_mood#Presumptive)
has super-classes
irrealis modalityc
has sub-classes
presumptive moodc

presumptive moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PresumptiveMood

Current version:
adopted from ILPOSTS (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PresumptiveMood) for Indian languages
The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis regarding the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability. For example, acolo s-o fi dus "he might have gone there" shows the basic presupposition use, while the following excerpt from a poem by Eminescu shows the use both in a conditional clause de-o fi "suppose it is" and in a main clause showing an attitude of submission to fate le-om duce "we would bear". De-o fi una, de-o fi alta... Ce e scris și pentru noi, Bucuroși le-om duce toate, de e pace, de-i război. Be it one, be it the other... Whatever fate we have, We will gladly go through all, be it peace or be it war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrealis_mood#Presumptive)
has super-classes
mood featurec
presumptive modalityc

preverbal particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PreverbalParticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1455 (preverbalParticleLmf)
has super-classes
particlec

pro quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ProQuantifier
A ProQuantifier is a quantifier derived from a pronominal element. ProQuantifiers thus partly characterized as pronouns (e.g., as pronominal adverbs) or quantifiers (e.g., "indefinite numeral" as in MTE v.4). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ProQuantifier)
has super-classes
pronounc
quantifierc
has sub-classes
demonstrative quantifierc, indefinite quantifierc, interrogative quantifierc, relative quantifierc

processed rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProcessedRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#processedRole
The entity that undergoes a Process (Dik, 1997:118). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#processedRole)
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

progressive aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProgressiveAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Progressive
ProgressiveAspect, also called the continuative or the durative, encodes a single event as an ongoing process. Thus, states cannot generally be encoded with the progressive (Comrie 1976: 32-35; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127-139; Payne 1997: 240). An exponent of phasal aspect which expresses a stative situation that holds during the time at which an event is occurring (e. g., He is fixing the fence) (Michaelis 1998:xv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Progressive)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

progressive passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProgressivePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressivePassive
A passive in Irish in which the preposition "at" is used, and a semantic meaning of progressive tense is found (Noonan 1994:280) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressivePassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

prolative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProlativeCase

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1368
Case for a noun or a pronoun that expresses motion within a place or a period of time needed for an event. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1368)
has super-classes
case featurec

promotional inverse voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PromotionalInverseVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PromotionalInverse
Involves promotion of the topical proximate-patient to subjecthood. (Givon 1994:24) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PromotionalInverse)
has super-classes
inverse voicec

pronominal adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PronominalAdverb

Current version:
EAGLES Adverb with Adverb-Type="Pronominal". Against the EAGLES definition given below, pronominal adverbs can but don't have to be used for pronominal references, thus this special and diachronically important case is better described by the join of this with personal pronoun.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Pronominal adverbs substitute for a preposition (which is incorporated into them) and an NP, cf. English therefore lit. "for this (reason, ...)", German deswegen lit. "because of this (reason, ...)". (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/elm_de/node235.html 21.09.06, examples Ch. Chiarcos)
has super-classes
adverbc
has sub-classes
demonstrative adverbc

pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Pronoun

Current version:
EAGLES PronounOrDeterminer with Category="Pronoun".
A pronoun is a pro-form which functions like a noun and substitutes for a noun or a noun-phrase. A language may have several classes of pronouns. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPronoun.htm 19.09.06) A pronominal is a phrase that functions as a pronoun (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPronominal.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1369)
has super-classes
pronoun or determinerc
has sub-classes
abbreviated pronounc, allusive pronounc, attributive pronounc, collective pronounc, conditional pronounc, demonstrative pronounc, differential pronounc, distributive pronounc, emphatic pronounc, fused preposition pronounc, fused pronoun auxiliaryc, indefinite pronounc, locative pronounc, pers refl pronounc, possessive pronounc, presentative pronounc, pro quantifierc, substitutive pronounc, w h pronounc

pronoun or determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PronounOrDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category PronounOrDeterminer (PD). The existence of this class is, however, controversial. In EAGLES, it has been introduced for reasons of lexical ambiguity in European languages thus it could be described by the joint of Pronoun and Determiner rather than as an independent class. Indeed, at least one fundamental difference is blurred here: Determiners are purely modifiers whereas pronouns contribute independent meaning. This could be adopted here as a criterion for higher-level organization of the OLiA Reference Model. The original EAGLES definition is not very specific about the difference between Pronouns and Determiners. Here, we assume two definitions: * semantic definition of pronouns: Pronouns are bound variables. They are referential. * syntactic definition of determiners: Determiners turn nominal expressions (of type <e,t>) into noun phrases (of type <e>). Note that these definitions are not exclusive (which is why annotation schemes differ in this aspect). Attributive possessive pronouns ('my book', 'their article') are semantically pronouns (they have an independent reference), but syntactically determiners. For the sub-classes, no exclusivity is required as Olia allows a hybrid ("both") category by multiple inheritance.
The parts of speech Pronoun, Determiner and Article heavily overlap in their formal and functional characteristics, and different analyses for different languages entail separating them out in different ways. In Eagles, Pronouns and Determiners are placed in one `super-category'. For some descriptions it may be thought best to treat them as totally different parts of speech. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recp 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
determinerc, pronounc
is in domain of
has strengthop

proper namec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProperNoun

Current version:
EAGLES Noun with Type="Proper".
Proper nouns (also called proper names) are the names of unique entities. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun 19.09.06)
has super-classes
nounc
has sub-classes
family namec, given namec, place nounc

proprietive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ProprietiveCase

Current version:
TDS Ontology, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#proprietiveCase-grammatical
Proprietive case marks a possessional relation, i.e. 'having' something. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#proprietiveCase-grammatical)
has super-classes
case featurec

proximalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Proximal

Current version:
added in accordance with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticProximalDeterminer
The referent denoted by a distal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English that) is usually spatially more remote or discoursally less salient as compared to a referent denoted by a proximal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English this) (Chiarcos)
has super-classes
proximity featurec

proximity featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#ProximityFeature

has super-classes
has proximityop
has sub-classes
distalc, proximalc, sequelc
is in range of
has proximityop

pseudopassive voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PseudopassiveVoice

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
voice in a specify passive construction (different from the regular passive) where the patient is the syntactic subject and agent is the syntactic object
has super-classes
passive voicec

punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Punctuation

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Punctuation (PU). For subconcepts, Wilson and Leech (1996) propose two alternative classifications: Here, we implement the more interesting, i.e. position (the alternative is just enumeration of possible signs)
Punctuation marks (PU) are treated here as a part of morphosyntactic annotation, as it is very common for punctuation marks to be tagged and to be treated as equivalent to words for the purposes of automatic tag assignment. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mp 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
main punctuationc, secondary punctuationc

purpose rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PurposeRole

Current version:
added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Bies et al. 1995)
-PRP (purpose or reason) â ´ marks purpose or reason clauses and PPs. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

purposive aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PurposiveAspect

Current version:
adapted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PurposiveAspect
The purposive aspect appears to add the notion of intention or probability, both negative and positive. (Steckley, 2007, p. 14, about Huron) (John Steckley, 2007, Words of the Huron, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

purposive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#PurposiveCase

Current version:
added in accordance with the ILPOSTS tagset for a case marker (postposition) in Indian languages, cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PurposiveCase
Purposive marks the goal of an activity, e.g., 'going out FOR (i.e. to catch) KANGAROOS'; 'call them FOR (i.e. to eat) FOOD'. The common purposive suffix -gu is a recurrent suffix on verbs ... The purposive case suffix is often used on a nominalised clause (and this may possibly be the origin of the verbal purposive). (Dixon 2002, p.134, on purposive case in [several] Australian languages) R.M.W. Dixon (2002), Australian Languages. CUP, Cambridge
has super-classes
case featurec

quadrialc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Quadrial

Current version:
subClassOf grammaticalNumber (dcif:conceptualDomain)
Property related to four elements. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2000)
has super-classes
number featurec

Qualifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Qualifier

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1373
Also called MODIFIER : A word or phrase that qualifies the sense of another word; for example, the noun alarm is a modifier of clock in "alarm clock" and the phrase every day is an adverbial modifier of walks in "he walks every day" (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=modifier; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1373)
has super-classes
modifierc
has sub-classes
qualifier adjectivec

qualifier adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QualifierAdjective

Current version:
subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)
Adjective used to qualify. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1477)
has super-classes
adjectivec
Qualifierc

qualitative verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QualitativeVerb

Current version:
adopted from the Bambara Reference Corpus (BRC, http://cormand.huma-num.fr/gloses.html)
no definition given
has super-classes
main verbc

quantificational aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuantificationalAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantificational, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#quantitativeAspect
A speaker may report an event as occurring once only (semelfactive) or several times (iterative); he may view it as a specific event or as part of a general habit of carrying out similar events; he may also differentiate between different degrees of frequency with which the event occurs. The markers that a given language provides for one or more of these meaning distinctions can be grouped under a subcategory called “quantificational aspect", as all of them refer to the quantitative aspect of the event concerned (Bhat 1999:53). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantificational)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Quantifier

Current version:
A category "Quantifier" is missing in EAGLES, but seems to be conflated with IndefiniteDeterminer. Added as top-level concept in accordance with the SFB632 annotation guidelines. Against the original (and meanwhile corrected) modelling in GOLD, Quantifier is not a subconcept of Determiner.
A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent's definite or indefinite number or amount. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun, or pronoun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuantifier.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
multiple numeralc, numeralc, pro quantifierc, quantifier nounc
is in domain of
has numeral agreement classop

quantifier nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NominalQuantifier

Current version:
shorthand for Quantifier and Noun, adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010)
A noun which quantifies one or more things, regardless of subject and an object. ང་གིས་ བམོ་ ལ་ དང་ ཕད་ཅི། NGAGI BUM 'NGA 'DA CHECI I girl five with met “I met with five girls.” (Jurmey Rabgay, email Sep 20, 2010)
is equivalent to
nounc and quantifierc
has super-classes
quantifierc

questionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Question

Current version:
Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
There are two types of questions: direct questions (which are main clauses ending with a question mark) and indirect questions (which are subordinate clauses embedded under a verb). In this section, we discuss only direct questions; indirect questions are bracketed as SBARâ ¹s (see Section 5.17). (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
sentence type featurec
interrogative modalityc
has sub-classes
direct questionc, question predicatec

question predicatec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuestionPredicate

Current version:
Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995
SQ â ´ Inverted yes/no question, or main clause of a wh-question, following the wh-phrase in SBARQ. (Bies et al. 1995) SQ|That part of an SBARQ that excludes the wh-word or wh-phrase. See Section 5.32. (Santorini 1991) The SBARQ label marks wh-questions (i.e., those that contain a gap and therefore require a trace). A further level of structure, SQ, contains the inverted auxiliary (if there is one) and the rest of the sentence. The inverted auxiliary in wh-questions is not labeled. ... SQ (See also section 1.2.7.) â ¢ inside SBARQ: As described above, inside wh-questions, SQ holds the subject, inverted auxiliary (if any), main verb phrase, and some adjuncts. â ¢ yes/no questions: SQ is used for yes/no questions (i.e., those with inversion but no wh-movement). ... â ¢ subject-less yes/no questions: In questions where the auxiliary and subject do not appear, the auxiliary is unlabeled and a null subject (NP-SBJ *) is used. ... Note that questions with overt subjects and auxiliaries that show declarative word order are simply labeled S. â ¢ Tag questions: Tag questions are treated as an adjunction of SQ to S. The resulting structure is labeled SQ, since the whole thing is interrogative in nature. The lower SQ is annotated to show predicate deletion; that is, an appropriate null *?* is inserted. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
questionc

question wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuestionWord

Current version:
deprecated, as merely a shorthand for Lexeme and hasModality some InterrogativeModality
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
A proform that is used in questions to stand for the item questioned.
is equivalent to
lexemec and (has modalityop some interrogative modalityc)
has super-classes
lexemec

quotative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuotativeModality

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Quotative, MTE VForm="quotative" (Estonian)
A quotative is grammatical device to mark reported speech in some languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotative), e.g., in Estonian.<br/> ‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’ Ta olevat oma paadiga ümber läinud He was_QUOTATIVE his_own boat_WITH over gone.<br/> (Estonian translation of an example given under http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuotativeEvidential.htm) (Heiki-Jaan.Kaalep, email 2010/06/22)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
quotative moodc

quotative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuotativeMood

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Quotative, MTE VForm="quotative" (Estonian)
A quotative is grammatical device to mark reported speech in some languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotative), e.g., in Estonian.<br/> ‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’ Ta olevat oma paadiga ümber läinud He was_QUOTATIVE his_own boat_WITH over gone.<br/> (Estonian translation of an example given under http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuotativeEvidential.htm) (Heiki-Jaan.Kaalep, email 2010/06/22)
has super-classes
mood featurec
quotative modalityc

quotative verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#QuotativeVerb

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Quotative, MTE VForm="quotative" (Estonian)
A quotative is grammatical device to mark reported speech in some languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotative), e.g., in Estonian.<br/> ‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’ Ta olevat oma paadiga ümber läinud He was_QUOTATIVE his_own boat_WITH over gone.<br/> (Estonian translation of an example given under http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuotativeEvidential.htm) (Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, email 2010/06/22)
has super-classes
mood featurec

quotec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Quote

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2081
Punctuation usually used to surround a quotation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2081)
has super-classes
secondary punctuationc
has sub-classes
close quotec, open quotec

raisable argumentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RaisableArgument

Current version:
from http://lemon-model.net/lemon#RaisableArgument, deprecated because this is just a shorthand for Raising and SyntacticArgument
is equivalent to
raisingc and syntactic argumentc

raisable subjectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RaisableSubject

Current version:
from http://lemon-model.net/lemon#RaisableSubject, deprecated because this is just a shorthand for Raising and SyntacticSubject
is equivalent to
raisingc and syntactic subjectc

raisingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Raising

Current version:
http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#RaisableArgument
Control indicates how a an argument from a main clause will be utilized in a subclause. Control includes both control structures and raising structures of verbs/clauses (see Control). As opposed to this, the OLiA Raising class pertains to raisable/raised arguments, cf. http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#RaisableArgument
has super-classes
movement featurec

raising subjectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RaisingSubject

Current version:
http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#RaisingSubject
Indicates the syntactic subject of the main clause is in fact the subject of the subclause. The main clause should then be interpreted as being impersonal. (http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#RaisingSubject)
has super-classes
controlc

rarely usedc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RarelyUsed

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1986
Said of a term that is almost never used. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1986)
has super-classes
possiblec

recent pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RecentPast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RecentPast
RecentPastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, but by culturally and situationally defined criteria, usually within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:121-122). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RecentPast)
has super-classes
pastc

recipient rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RecipientRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#recipientRole
A recipient instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who recieves an entity in some way from the event. <p> Prototypically “recieve” here means “to take in one’s hand, or into one’s possession (something held out or offered by another); to take delivery of (a thing) from another” in some way. (OED) </p> (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#recipientRole)
has super-classes
undergoer macro rolec

reciprocal middlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReciprocalMiddle

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalMiddle
Referents of plural subject do action to one another. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalMiddle)
has super-classes
middle voicec

reciprocal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReciprocalPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES PersReflPronoun with "Special PronounType"="Reciprocal".
A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAReciprocalPronoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc

reduced inflectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReducedInflection

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NominalAdjective
Reduced adjective inflection of Slavic languages, e.g., Czech e.g., brillská/brillský, neznámo/neznámý, samo/sám, samy/sám (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NominalAdjective)
has super-classes
strength featurec

reduced relative clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReducedRelativeClause

Current version:
Santorini 1991
RRC (reduced relative clause) Reduced relative clauses are adjoined to the NP they modify. (Bies et al. 1995) We will use the term \reduced relative clause" to refer to participial or adjectival constituents of the type illustrated in (@26). (26) He bought two watches designed by Paloma Picasso. Reduced relative clauses should be bracketed as adjunction structures. The structure of ( 26) is thus as in (@27). Note that the reduced relative clause, which is headed by a participle, is bracketed as a VP. (27) (S (NP He) (VP bought (NP (NP two watches) (VP designed (PP by (PNP (PNP Paloma) (PNP Picasso)))))) .) (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
subordinate clausec

reduplicationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Reduplication

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2346 (reduplication)
process to modify the sense of a word by some operations to repeat the sound of a word. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2346)
has super-classes
morphological processc
has sub-classes
echo wordc

reduplication type featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#ReduplicationTypeFeature

has super-classes
has reduplication typeop
is in range of
has reduplication typeop

referential voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReferentialVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReferentialVoice, classified as Antipassive here in analogy with ObliquePassive
entails assignment of the absolutive to certain kinds of arguments other than the logical subjects (A) and objects (P), including the dative, benefactive, malefactive, and possessor. (Klaiman 1991:239) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReferentialVoice)
has super-classes
antipassivec

reflexivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Reflexive

Current version:
TODO: integrate with Voice, rename to ReflexiveVoice
A reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object) are the same. In many languages, reflexive constructions are rendered by transitive verbs followed by a reflexive pronoun, as in English -self (e. g., She threw herself to the floor.). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verbs 20.11.06)
has super-classes
reflexivity featurec
voice featurec

reflexive adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexiveDeterminer

Current version:
subClassOf determiner (dcif:isA)
Determiner that refers to the same entity. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1377)
has super-classes
determinerc

reflexive middlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexiveMiddle

Current version:
TODO: Check Siewierska (1988:257)
Reflexive middle makes use of grammatical devices that normally indicate reflexivity. (Ch. Chiarcos)
has super-classes
middle voicec

reflexive passivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexivePassive

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePassive
A Passive construction which contains reflexive markings. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePassive)
has super-classes
passive voicec

reflexive possessive determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexivePossessiveDeterminer

Current version:
shorthand for ReflexiveDeterminer and PossessiveDeterminer, relevant for MULTEXT-East (Slavic) and EMILLE (Urdu), http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#ReflexivePossessiveAdjective
Attributive possessive pronoun form of the reflexive pronoun, e.g., Russian свой: Обама на свой день рождения угощал гостей стейками и хот-догами. Obama on his day of.birth entertained guests with.steaks and hot.dogs "On his birthday, Obama entertained his guests with steaks and hot dogs." (http://ua.rian.ru/world_news/20110805/78815136.html) The antecedent of a possessive reflexive is not determined by its gender, but by its syntactic prominence.
is equivalent to
possessive determinerc and reflexive adjectivec

reflexive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexivePronoun

Current version:
EAGLES PersReflPronoun with SpecialPronounType="Reflexive".
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that has coreference with the subject. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAReflexivePronoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc

reflexive voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ReflexiveVoice

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#reflexiveVoice
The reflexive voice is a grammatical voice in which the subject is both the agent and the patient or recipient. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#reflexiveVoice)
has super-classes
voice featurec

reflexivity featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#ReflexivityFeature

Current version:
TODO: integrate with VoiceFeature (as in the TDS Ontology) implementation
has super-classes
voice featurec
has reflexivityop
has sub-classes
non reflexivec, reflexivec
is in range of
has reflexivityop

relation nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelationNoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2226
relation noun (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2226)
has super-classes
common nounc

relational adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelationalAdjective

Current version:
cf. OrdinalAdjective
The Slovene adjective expresses three main ideas: quality (qualitative adjectives, kakovostni pridevniki), relation (relational adjectives, vrstni pridevniki) and possession (possessive adjectives, svojilni pridevniki). Relational adjectives express type, class or numerical sequence of a noun. For instance: kemijska in fizikalna sprememba (chemical and physical change), fotografski aparat (photographic device (=camera)). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovene_grammar)
has super-classes
adjectivec

relative adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeAdjective

Current version:
adopted from EMILLE for Urdu, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#RelativeAdjective
Relative adjectives express similarity or a comparison. (Schmidt 1999, p.218, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#RelativeAdjective)
has super-classes
adjectivec

relative adverbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeAdverb

Current version:
EAGLES Adverb with Wh-Type="Relative".
The value relative is used for adverbs in clear relative cases as in: "The place 'where' I met you.", "The reason 'why' I did it." (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/pub/eagles/lexicons/elm_en.ps.gz, p.33, 07.05.07)
has super-classes
w h type adverbsc

relative clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeClause

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeClause
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. For example, the noun phrase [the man who wasn't there] contains the noun [man], which is modified by the relative clause [who wasn't there] (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeClause with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_clause and Dik 1997) There are three di erent types of relative clauses in English (be careful not to confuse relative clauses and complement clauses): (i) wh-relative clauses (a guy who(m) I know), (ii) that-relative clauses (a guy that I know), and (iii) zero relative clauses (a guy I know). (Santorini 1991)
has super-classes
subordinate clausec

relative determinerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeDeterminer

Current version:
EAGLES Determiner with Wh-Type="Relative".
The relative determiner describes a attributive relative pronoun. In German "wessen" in "Ich weiss nicht, wessen Auto das ist." or the English "whose" in "The man whose daughter became ill.". The relative determiner needs a noun to complete a NP (Nominal Phrase). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/pub/eagles/lexicons/elm_en.ps.gz, p.28, 07.05.07)
has super-classes
w h determinerc

relative modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeModality

Current version:
Clarify relationship with DirectSpeech
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Mood to express reported speech (or indirect speech) as opposed to direct speech.
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
relative moodc

relative moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeMood

Current version:
Clarify relationship with DirectSpeech
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Mood to express reported speech (or indirect speech) as opposed to direct speech.
has super-classes
mood featurec
relative modalityc

relative particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
relative particle (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2229)
has super-classes
particlec

relative pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativePast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePast
RelativePastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point (Comrie 1985: 104). Also called PastPerfectTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePast)
has super-classes
relative tensec

relative presentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativePresent

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePresent
RelativePresentTense locates the situation in question simultaneously with some contextually determined temporal reference point. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePresent)
has super-classes
relative tensec

relative pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativePronoun

Current version:
EAGLES WHPronoun with Wh-Type="Relative".
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause, functions grammatically within the relative clause, and is coreferential to the word modified by the relative clause. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsARelativePronoun.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
w h pronounc

relative quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RelativeQuantifier
In the Czech MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="relative" are items meaning `how many/much', `as many/much' etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RelativeQuantifier)
has super-classes
pro quantifierc

relative tensec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelativeTense

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeTense
Relative tense is a tense that refers to a time in relation to a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter’s temporal relation to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisrelativetense.htm)
has super-classes
tense featurec
has sub-classes
future perfectc, relative pastc, relative presentc

relevance aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RelevanceAspect

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relevanceAspect
relevance aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relevanceAspect)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

remote futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RemoteFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemoteFuture, classified as Future here
RemoteFutureTense locates the situation in question at a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as 'tomorrow' (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemoteFuture)
has super-classes
futurec

remote pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RemotePast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemotePast, classified as absolute-relative here
RemotePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, usually more than a few days ago (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:88). Subsumes notion of PreHesternalPast tense, which locates the situation in question before that of an opposing hesternal past tense. (Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemotePast)
has super-classes
pastc

repetitive coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction
Conjunction/Coord_Type="repetit" (Romanian). In Romanian, there are three kinds of conjunctions depending on their usage: as such or together with other conjunctions or adverbs: (1) simple, between conjuncts: Ion ori Maria (John or Mary); (2) repetitive, before each conjunct: fie Ion fie Maria fie... (either John or Mary or...) (3) correlative, before a conjoined phrase, it requires specific coordinators between conjuncts: atât mama cât şi tata (both mother and father). (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc

residualc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Residual

Current version:
EAGLES top-level category Residual (R) with the exception of its subclass "Unclassified". Unclassified is not represented in the OLiA ontology, as it does not represent information, but the absence of information.
The residual value (R) is assigned to classes of text words which lie outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, although they occur quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. For example: foreign words, or mathematical formulae. It can be argued that these are on the fringes of the grammar or lexicon of the language in which the text is written. Nevertheless, they need to be tagged. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06) Although words in the Residual category are on the periphery of the lexicon, they may take some of the grammatical characteristics, e.g., of nouns. Acronyms such as IBM are similar to proper nouns; symbols such as alphabetic characters can vary for singular and plural (e.g. How many Ps are there in `psychopath'?), and are in this respect like common nouns. In some languages (e.g. Portuguese) such symbols also have gender. It is quite reasonable that in some tagging schemes some of these classes of word will be classified under other parts of speech. (The Unclassified category applies to word-like text segments which do not easily fit into any of the foregoing values. For example: incomplete words and pause fillers such as er and erm in transcriptions of speech, or written representations of singing such as dum-de-dum. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recr 19.09.06)
has super-classes
morphosyntactic categoryc
has sub-classes
abbreviationc, acronymc, contractionc, datec, foreign wordc, formulac, generalization wordc, layout elementc, onomatopoetic wordc, symbolc, typoc

rhetorical modifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RhetoricalModifier

Current version:
TODO: check definition
added in conformance with TIGER
has super-classes
modifierc

right parenthetical punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RightParentheticalPunctuation

Current version:
added in accordance with EAGLES suggestions (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv)
End of a paired punctuation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2079) RightParentheticalPunctuation is a punctuation mark which concludes a constituent whose the opening is marked by a LeftParentheticalPunctuation, e.g. ), ] and Spanish ?. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)
has super-classes
parenthetical punctuationc
has sub-classes
close angle bracketc, close bracketc, close curly bracketc, close parenthesisc, close square bracketc

roman numeralc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#RomanNumeral

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Numeral expressed with roman digits.
has super-classes
numeralc
stringc

rootc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Root

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2231
base of a word (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2231)
has super-classes
morphemec

scriptc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Script

is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages.
has super-classes
orthographic entityc

secondc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Second

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Second
Refers to the person(s) the speaker is addressing (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Second)
has super-classes
person featurec
has sub-classes
second familiarc, second honorificc, second non honorificc, second politec

second familiarc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondFamiliar

Current version:
EAGLES PersonalPronoun attribute Politeness="Familiar". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns.
In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. The feature SecondFamiliar applies to the corresponding unmarked forms for informal conversiation in such languages. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)
has super-classes
secondc

second honorificc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondHonorific

Current version:
Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Honorific
has super-classes
secondc

second non honorificc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondNonHonorific

Current version:
Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonHonorific
has super-classes
secondc

second person pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondPersonPronoun

Current version:
TODO: Person as property
Second person deixis means deictic reference to a person or persons identified as addressee. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsSecondPersonDeixis.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc
has sub-classes
familiar second person pronounc, polite second person pronounc

second politec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondPolite

Current version:
EAGLES PersonalPronoun attribute Politeness="Polite". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns. In French, for example, it is possible to treat Polite simply as pragmatic values encoded through other attributes - especially person and number. In languages where there are special polite pronoun forms (e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted), the additional Politeness attribute is required. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)
In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)
has super-classes
secondc

secondary punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SecondaryPunctuation

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2076
Punctuation that is not very important with regards to sentence splitting in a text. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2076)
has super-classes
punctuationc
has sub-classes
parenthetical punctuationc, quotec, sentence medial punctuationc, slashc

semantic inverse voicec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SemanticInverseVoice

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticInverse
If the agent outranks the patient on the relevant generic topic hierarchy, the direct-active clause is used. If the relevant norm is reversed and the patient outranks the agent on the relevant hierarchy, the inverse clause is used. (Givon 1994:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticInverse)
has super-classes
inverse voicec

semantic rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SemanticRole

Current version:
TODO: Check subcategorization in MacroRoles. Currently, this follows the TDS ontology, but the strict assignment of semantic roles to macroroles contradicts the selection algorithm as described by van Valin and Lapolla (1997): MacroRoles are not assigned a priori, but on on the basis of *relative agentivity* among the arguments.
has super-classes
has semantic roleop
has sub-classes
actor macro rolec, addressee rolec, cause rolec, comitative rolec, condition rolec, direction rolec, extent rolec, goal rolec, instrument rolec, location rolec, manner rolec, oblique rolec, possessor rolec, purpose rolec, theme rolec, time rolec, undergoer macro rolec
is in range of
has semantic roleop, has semantic roleop

semelfactive aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SemelfactiveAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Semelfactive
Momentaneous, without an inherent end-point, as sneeze (Michaelis 1998:xvi). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Semelfactive)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

semi-colonc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SemiColon

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1446
Sign (;) usually used to separate phrases. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1446)
has super-classes
sentence medial punctuationc

sentencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Sentence

Current version:
TODO: model Sentence as separate concept indepdendently from Constituent (cf. TüBa-DZ "Root"). But what would be an appropriate name for that ?
The maximal, syntactically independent, segments into which a text is subdivided, for parsing purposes, are normally considered to be sentences. In a written text, they are typically (though by no means invariably) delimited by an initial capital letter and a final full stop (`.') or other terminal punctuation. It is convenient to accept this primary orthographic definition of `sentence' for the purposes of syntactic annotation. However, a sentence, so defined, may be either a full sentence (9) or a `grammatically incomplete' one (10). (9) [S This is a sentence. S] (10) [S Well done. S] The same applies to sentences included within other sentences, as in (11) (11) [S [S ``Well done'', S] she said. S] } ``Well done'' in 11 is labelled as a sentence, since it clearly has an independent syntactic status equivalent to those of 9, even though it is included in another sentence. This inclusion of one independent sentence within another is found both with reported speech and elsewhere. Phenomena such as those illustrated in 10 are by no means exceptional in text corpora. In transcriptions of spoken discourse, there is no simple answer to the question ``What is a sentence?''. Some transcriptions, based on standard orthography, yield de facto sentences in the form of units beginning with a capital letter and closing with a terminal punctuation mark. For these, there is no problem in recognising the primary sentential segments and delimiting them by [S ... S], even though these segments frequently lack the canonical structure of a complete written sentence. Moreover, even in other transcriptions, where the standard orthographic practices of sentence delimitation are avoided, it is possible to identify `primary segments' analogous to the written sentence, viz. the primary units into which the transcribed discourse is divided for parsing purposes. For spoken as well as written language, then, the [S] unit may be retained, although it may be interpreted differently, and some other term, such as `primary segment', may be preferred to `sentence'. We conclude by recommending, for the syntactic annotation of any text (including a transcription of spoken language), an exhaustive division of the text into units labelled [S ... S]. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node30.html#SECTION00052100000000000000)
has super-classes
constituentc

sentence final punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SentenceFinalPunctuation

Current version:
added in accordance with http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv
SentenceFinalPunctuation are . ? !. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)
has super-classes
main punctuationc
has sub-classes
declarative punctuationc, dotc, interrogative pointc

sentence medial punctuationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SentenceMedialPunctuation

Current version:
added in accordance with a suggestion by Wilson and Leech (1996)
SentenceMedialPunctuation are , ; : - . (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)
has super-classes
secondary punctuationc
has sub-classes
colonc, commac, hyphenc, semi-colonc, suspension pointsc

separability featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SeparabilityFeature

has super-classes
has separabilityop
has sub-classes
non separablec, separablec
is in range of
has separabilityop

separablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Separable

Current version:
EAGLES; note that UbyPos extends separability to particles
A separable verb is a verb that is composed of a verb stem and a separable affix. In some verb forms, the verb appears in one word, whilst in others the verb stem and the affix are separated. German and Dutch are notable for having many separable verbs. For example, the Dutch verb "aankomen" is a separable verb. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separable_verb 20.11.06)
has super-classes
separability featurec

separable prefixc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SeparablePrefix

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
separable verb prefix, e.g., "Auch die Vertreter der AfB [stimmten] den 86 Millionen [zu]."
has super-classes
prefixc

sequelc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Sequel

Current version:
added in accordance with ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Sequel
Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages. No definition or examples provided: Distance=Sequel (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Sequel)
has super-classes
proximity featurec

short articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ShortDefiniteArticle

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1927 (short article)
For definiteness, when a specific form is not the syntactic subject of the clause. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1927)
has super-classes
definite articlec

simplec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Simple

Current version:
EAGLES
Simple applies to the regular type of coordinator occurring between conjuncts: German und, for example. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coord type featurec

simple aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SimpleAspect

Current version:
ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#SimpleAspect
non-progressive, non-purposive aspect (for Indian languages defined by http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#SimpleAspect)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

simple coordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SimpleCoordinatingConjunction

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SimpleCoordinatingConjunction
Simple applies to the regular type of coordinator occurring between conjuncts: German und, for example. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)
has super-classes
coordinating conjunctionc

simple futurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SimpleFuture

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future, cf. http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past
FutureTense locates the situation in question after the present moment, with no specification on the distance in time. (adapted from the definition of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past)
has super-classes
futurec

simple pastc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SimplePast

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past
PastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, with no specification on the distance in time (Comrie 1985). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past)
has super-classes
pastc

simple prepositionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SimplePreposition

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1900
Preposition that is a pure simple word in contrast with the notion of fused preposition. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1900)
has super-classes
prepositionc

singularc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Singular

Current version:
EAGLES
Singular is a grammatical number denoting a unit quantity (as opposed to the plural and other forms). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singular 17.11.06)
has super-classes
number featurec

singular quantifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SingularQuantifier

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SingularQuantifier (MTE v4 Numeral/Class="definite1", http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SingularQuantifier) Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite).
A singular quantifier is a quantifier or a numeral that specifies a single referent from a set. (Chiarcos) In Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, the corresponding category Numeral/Class="definite1" is applied to the numeral "one". (MTE v4)
is equivalent to
quantifierc and (has numeral agreement classop some singular quantifierc)
has super-classes
numeral agreement classc

slang registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SlangRegister

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1995
An extremely informal register of a word, term, or text that is used in spoken and everyday language and less commonly in documents. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1995)
has super-classes
register featurec

slashc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Slash

Current version:
subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)
The punctuation sign / (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1437)
has super-classes
secondary punctuationc

sociative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SociativeCase

Current version:
adopted from http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1388
Case related to the person in whose company the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1388)
has super-classes
case featurec

source rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SourceRole

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#sourceRole
A source role instantiates the origin of an event or entity. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#sourceRole)
has super-classes
direction rolec

spacec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Space

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2189
Empty area between words, lines or columns (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2189)
has super-classes
graphical separatorc

spatio-temporal nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SpatiotemporalNoun

Current version:
adopted from Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#SpatiotemporalNoun
Noun denoting spatial and temporal expressions "A tag NST has been included to cover an important phenomenon of Indian languages. Certain expressions such as 'Upara' (above/up), 'nIce' (below) 'pahale' (before), 'Age' (front) etc are content words denoting time and space. These expressions, however, are used in various ways. For example, 5.1.2.1 These words often occur as temporal or spatial arguments of a verb in a given sentence taking the appropriate vibhakti (case marker): h3. vaha Upara so rahA thA . 'he' 'upstairs' 'sleep' 'PROG' 'was' “He was sleepign upstairs”. h4. vaha pahale se kamare meM bEThA thA . 'he' 'beforehand' 'from' ' room' 'in' 'sitting' 'was' “He was sitting in the room from beforehand” h5. tuma bAhara bETho 'you' 'outside' 'sit' “You sit outside”. Apart from functioning like an argument of a verb, these elements also modify another noun taking postposition 'kA'. h6. usakA baDZA bhAI Upara ke hisse meM rahatA hE 'his' 'elder' 'brother' 'upstairs' 'of' 'portion' 'in' 'live' 'PRES' “His elder brother lives in the upper portion of the house”. 5.1.2.2 Apart from occuring as a nominal expression, they also occur as a part of a postposition along with 'ke'. For example, h7. ghaDZe ke Upara thAlI rakhI hE. 'pot' 'of' 'above' 'plate' 'kept' 'is' The plate is kept on the pot”. h8. tuma ghara ke bAhara bETho 'you' 'home' 'of' 'outside' 'sit' “You sit outside the house”. 'Upara' and 'bAhara' are parts of complex postpositions 'ke Upara' and 'ke bAhara' in (h6) and (h7) respectively which can be translated into English prepositions 'on' and 'outside'. For tagging such words, one possible option is to tag them according to their syntactic function in the given context. For example in 5.2.2 (h7) above, the word 'Upara' is occurring as part of a postposition or a relation marker. It can, therefore, be marked as a postposition. Similarly, in 5.2.1. (h3) and (h6) above, it is a noun, therefore, mark it as a noun and so on. Alternatively, since these words are more like nouns, as is evident from 5.2.1 above they can be tagged as nouns in all there occurrences. The same would apply to 'bAhAra' (outside) in examples examples (h4), (h5) and (h8). However, if we follow any of the above approaches we miss out on the fact that this class of words is slightly different from other nouns. These are nouns which indicate 'location' or 'time'. At the same time, they also function as postpositions in certain contexts. Moreover, such words, if tagged according to their syntactic function, will hamper machine learning. Considering their special status, it was considered whether to introduce a new tag, NST, for such expressions. The following five possibilities were discussed : a) Tag both (h5) & (h8) as NN b) Tag both (h5) & (h8) as NST c) Tag (h5) as NN & (h8) as NST d) Tag (h5) as NST & (h8) as PSP e) Tag (h5) as NN & (h8) as PSP After considering all the above, the decision was taken in favour of (b). The decision was primarily based on the following observations: (i) 'bAhara' in both (h5) and (h8) denotes the same expression (place expression 'outside') (ii) In both (h5) and (h8), 'bAhara' can take a vibhakti like a noun ( bAhara ko bETho, ghara ke bAhara ko bETho) (iii) If a single tag is kept for both the usages, the decision making for annotators would also be easier. Therefore, a new tag NST is introduced for such expressions. The tag NST will be used for a finite set of such words in any language. For example, Hindi has Age (front), pIche (behind), Upara (above/upstairs), nIce (below/down), bAda (after), pahale (before), andara (inside), bAhara (outside) etc." (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)
has super-classes
common nounc

specificc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Specific

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer
"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)
has super-classes
specificity featurec

specific articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SpecificArticle

Current version:
introduced to account for the specific determiner in Farsi (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer)
"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)
has super-classes
articlec
has sub-classes
clitic specific articlec

specificity featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SpecificityFeature

has super-classes
has specificityop
has sub-classes
nonspecificc, specificc
is in range of
has specificityop

standard registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#NeutralRegister

Current version:
subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)
The register appropriate to general texts or discourse. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1999)
has super-classes
register featurec

status constructusc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StatusConstructus

Current version:
According to the Arabic usage of this category, modeled here as a DefinitenessFeature, though not directly a subconcept of definite, because it has other functions in other languages.
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
morphological form of the nominal head of noun+noun-phrases which in spite of a missing determiner (article) is invariably understood as semantically determined. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2997) The construct state or status constructus is a noun form occurring in Afro-Asiatic languages. It is particularly common in Semitic languages (such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac), in the Berber languages, and in the extinct Egyptian language. ... In Semitic languages, nouns are placed in the construct state when they are semantically definite and modified by another noun in a genitive construction. Note that this differs from the genitive case of European languages in that it is the head (modified) noun rather than the dependent (modifying) noun which is marked. However, in Semitic languages with grammatical case (e.g. Classical Arabic), the modifying noun in a genitive construction is placed in the genitive case, in addition to marking the head noun with the construct state. ... The construct state is one of the three grammatical states of nouns in Arabic, the other two being the indefinite state and the definite state. ... (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construct_state)
has super-classes
definiteness featurec

still presentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StillPresent

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StillPresent
StillPresentTense is similar to PresentTense but carries the presupposition that an event or state held before the moment of utterance. In positive declarative clauses, still present tense asserts that the event or state holds at the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 54; named changed from 'StillTense'). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StillPresent)
has super-classes
pastc
has sub-classes
imperfectc

strength featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#StrengthFeature

Current version:
merged with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectiveFormation, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ReductionFeature: reduced vs. full inflection
has super-classes
has strengthop
has sub-classes
nonreduced inflectionc, reduced inflectionc, strongc, weakc
is in range of
has strengthop

strict auxiliary verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StrictAuxiliaryVerb

Current version:
Definition in accordance with the SFB632 definition of "auxiliary verb" as non-copular and non-modal verb. In EAGLES, auxiliary verb also seems to be non-modal: In addition to main and auxiliary verbs, it may be useful (e.g. in English) to recognise an intermediate category of semi-auxiliary for such verbs as be going to, have got to, ought to. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1v 20.09.06)
Non-modal, non-copular auxiliary verb.
has super-classes
auxiliary verbc
has sub-classes
aspect marking auxiliaryc, bec, havec, tense marking auxiliaryc

stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#String

Current version:
Introduced as a generalization over numeralRoman which is orthographically defined but not a single character
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl
Character string to be interpreted in context
has super-classes
orthographic entityc
has sub-classes
digit numeralc, letter numeralc, roman numeralc

strongc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Strong

Current version:
EAGLES
Strong pronouns are different from the weak pronouns (cf. StrengthFeature:Weak)
has super-classes
strength featurec

strong inflectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StrongInflection

Current version:
EAGLES
In German (and other Germanic languages), when gender, number and case are not expressed by a determiner, the adjective takes the endings of the strong inflection. (http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Adjektiv/Deklinationstyp/Stark.html 20.11.06) Strong inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.
has super-classes
inflection type featurec

strong personal pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StrongPersonalPronoun

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1390
Personal pronoun that can occupy the position after a preposition and/or reinforce a weak personal pronoun. (Eagles; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1390)
has super-classes
irreflexive personal pronounc

structural expletivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#StructuralExpletive

Current version:
TüBa-D/Z
Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60) In German, a purely structural dummy element ... occurs in Vorfeld position only and is not correlated with any argument of the clause. It does not agree with the verb which becomes evident if there is a plural subject in the Mittelfeld: "es zahlen ihn die Völker, deren Menschenrechte angeblich verteidigt werden." It is ungrammatical in the Mittelfeld, e.g. *". . . dass es ihn die Völker zahlen".
has super-classes
expletive pronounc

subablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubablativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subablative
SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

suballative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuballativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suballative
SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suballative)
has super-classes
case featurec

subessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubessiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subessive
SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

subject controlc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubjectControl

Current version:
http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#SubjectControl
Indicates the subject of the main clause is the (omitted) subject of the subclause (http://www.lexinfo.net/ontology/2.0/lexinfo#SubjectControl)
has super-classes
controlc

subjunctive modalityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubjunctiveModality

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subjunctive, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subjunctiveModality
The subjunctive is the mood that is minimally marked as opposed to the indicative and that marks a clause as not directly representing an assertion of the speaker. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Subjunktiv 18.06.07)
has super-classes
modality featurec
has sub-classes
subjunctive moodc

subjunctive moodc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubjunctiveMood

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subjunctive, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subjunctiveModality
The subjunctive is the mood that is minimally marked as opposed to the indicative and that marks a clause as not directly representing an assertion of the speaker. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Subjunktiv 18.06.07)
has super-classes
mood featurec
subjunctive modalityc

subjunctive particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubjunctiveParticle

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SubjunctiveParticle
In the Romanian MULTEXT-East scheme, a verbal particle with Particle/Type="future" modifies the verbs and marks the verb as being subjunctive, e.g., s-/să, să (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SubjunctiveParticle)
has super-classes
verbal particlec

subjunctive verbc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubjunctiveVerb

Current version:
EAGLES finite verbs with VerbForm="Subjunctive".
A subjunctive verb is typically used to expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), emotion, possibility, judgment, necessity, and statements that are contrary to fact at present. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subjunctive_mood 19.09.06)
has super-classes
finite verbc

sublative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SublativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Sublative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1392
SublativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent is moving toward. It has the meaning 'towards the underneath of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Sublative)
has super-classes
case featurec

subord type featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SubordTypeFeature

Current version:
reimplemented as concepts
has sub-classes
with comparativec, with finitec, with infinitec

subordinate clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinateClause

Current version:
Subclassification here follows the functional subclassification of subordinate clauses in the TDS ontologies. GOLD proposes an alternative syntax-based subclassification (yet without documentation or explanation) in AdjunctSubordinate and ComplementSubordinate. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComplementSubordinate, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjunctSubordinate)
SubordinateClause is the class of clauses that cannot stand on their own as sentences. A matrix clause combined with a subordinate clause form a main clause. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'Mary is sick' is the subordinate clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause) Dependent clauses (which are also sometimes referred to as subordinate clauses) cannot stand alone as sentences. They usually begin with subordinating conjunctions. A sentence with an independent clause and any number of dependent clauses is referred to as a complex sentence. One with two or more independent clauses and any number of dependent clauses is referred to as a compound-complex sentence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause, cf. http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subordinateClause). A subordinate clause is an embedded construction which contains a finite verb form. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#finiteEmbeddedConstruction)
has super-classes
finite clausec
has sub-classes
adverbial subordinate clausec, complement clausec, conditional clausec, reduced relative clausec, relative clausec, w h cleftc

subordinating conjunctionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunction

Current version:
Following EAGLES and MULTEXT-East, the subclassification of SubordinatingConjunction reflects constraints on MorphosyntacticFeatures of verbal and nominal arguments of subordinating conjunctions, in these cases verbal inflection (finiteness, negation) and Degree
Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction 19.09.06)
has super-classes
conjunctionc
has sub-classes
subordinating conjunction with comparativec, subordinating conjunction with finite clausec, subordinating conjunction with infinitec, subordinating conjunction with negationc, subordinating conjunction without negationc, zero complementizerc
is in domain of
has subord typeop

subordinating conjunction with comparativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunctionWithComparative

Current version:
EAGLES
For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "als" is followed by various kinds of comparative clause (including clauses without finite verbs). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)
has super-classes
subordinating conjunctionc

subordinating conjunction with finite clausec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunctionWithFiniteClause

Current version:
EAGLES
For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "weil" introduces a clause with a finite verb. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)
has super-classes
subordinating conjunctionc

subordinating conjunction with infinitec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunctionWithInfinite

Current version:
EAGLES
For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "ohne" ("zu"...) is followed by an infinitive. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)
has super-classes
subordinating conjunctionc

subordinating conjunction with negationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunctionWithNegation

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeSubordinatingConjunction
Conjunction/Sub_Type="negative" (Romanian, Serbian, Russian) In Romanian, each conjunction requires another mood, so that the diversity may be controlled by subcategorisation rules. The attribute Sub_Type distinguishes among the positive and negative conjunctions, providing means to control verbal double negation, (as in case of the negative pronouns, determiners and adverbs): nici NU am venit, nimeni NU vorbeşte, nici_un tren N-a trecut, nicăieri N-am văzut (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeSubordinatingConjunction)
has super-classes
subordinating conjunctionc

subordinating conjunction without negationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatingConjunctionWithoutNegation

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PositiveSubordinatingConjunction
Conjunction/Sub_Type="negative" (Romanian, Serbian, Russian) In Romanian, each conjunction requires another mood, so that the diversity may be controlled by subcategorisation rules. The attribute Sub_Type distinguishes among the positive and negative conjunctions, providing means to control verbal double negation, (as in case of the negative pronouns, determiners and adverbs): nici NU am venit, nimeni NU vorbeşte, nici_un tren N-a trecut, nicăieri N-am văzut (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PositiveSubordinatingConjunction)
has super-classes
subordinating conjunctionc

subordinator fieldc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubordinatorField

In the German clause, the PARORD-field is the field for non-coordinating particles which optionally occur as the left-most element of a verb-second clause (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)
has super-classes
topological fieldc

Substantive adjectivec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubstantiveAdjective

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1394
An adjective that modifies an implied, but not expressed, noun. When translating such an adjective into English, you must supply the missing noun. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1394) (Chiarcos: this seems to pertain to nominalization)
has super-classes
adjectivec

substitutive pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubstitutivePronoun

Current version:
introduced to account for non-attributive pronouns, see olia:AttributivePronoun
non-attributive pronoun
is equivalent to
pronounc and (not (attributive pronounc))
has super-classes
pronounc
not (adjectivec)

subterminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubterminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subterminative
SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subterminative)
has super-classes
case featurec

subtranslative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SubtranslativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subtranslative
SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a feature of adjectives. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subtranslative)
has super-classes
case featurec

suffixc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Suffix

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1395
Affix added at the end of the word to change its meaning or part of speech. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1395)
has super-classes
affixc

superablative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperablativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superablative
Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superablative)
has super-classes
case featurec

superallative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperallativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superallative
SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superallative)
has super-classes
case featurec

superessive casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperessiveCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1396
SuperessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location on which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'on' or 'upon'. (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207, Gove, et al. 1966: 2293). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superessive)
has super-classes
case featurec

superlativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Superlative

Current version:
EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1422
The superlative of an adjective or adverb is a form of adjective or adverb which indicates that something has some feature to a greater degree than anything it is being compared to in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superlative 17.11.06)
has super-classes
degree featurec

superlative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperlativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superlative
SuperlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location onto which another referent is moving. It has the meaning of 'onto'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a property of adjectives. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superlative)
has super-classes
case featurec

superlative particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperlativeParticle

Current version:
subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)
Particle expressing superlative degree. Superlative is the comparison between more than two entities and contrasts with comparative where only two entities are involved and positive where no comparison is implied. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1923)
has super-classes
particlec

superterminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuperterminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superterminative
SuperterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region over the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superterminative)
has super-classes
case featurec

supertranslative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SupertranslativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Supertranslative
SupertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Supertranslative)
has super-classes
case featurec

supinec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Supine

Current version:
EAGLES NonFiniteVerb with VerbForm="Supine".
Supine is a nonfinite form of motion verbs with functions similar to that of an infinitive (Angelika Adams)
has super-classes
converbc

suspension pointsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SuspensionPoints

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1447
Sequence of three dots having the same meaning as "et cetera" (full form) or "etc" (abbreviated form). (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1447)
has super-classes
sentence medial punctuationc

symbolc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Symbol

Current version:
EAGLES Category Residual with Type="Symbol".
In morphosyntactic annotation schemes, a symbol is a single graphical sign that occurs in a written text with a conventionalized meaning but that does not represent a phoneme (like ordinary characters), an orthogaphic sign (punctuation), or a number. (Christian Chiarcos) Symbols such as alphabetic characters can vary for singular and plural (e.g. How many Ps are there in `psychopath'?), and are in this respect like common nouns. In some languages (e.g. Portuguese) such symbols also have gender. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recr)
has super-classes
residualc

syntactic adjunctc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SyntacticAdjunct

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticAdjunct
Prototypically, an optional (morpho)syntactic constituent. 'Satellites are not ... required by the predicate; they give optional further information pertaining to additional features of the SoA ..., the location of the SoA ..., the speaker's attitude towards or evaluation of the propositional content ..., or the character of the speech act...' (Dik, 1997:87) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticAdjunct) The category adjunct (ADJ) is assigned to those constituents that appear as optional additions, be it to the main verb or to a given noun. This means that they can be left out freely without a change in grammaticality or a significant change in meaning. In "John called Mary (from school) (with his cell phone)" the optional additions "from school" and "with his cell phone" are such optional additions that can be left out freely. Adjuncts are generally used to convey additional information about the time, place, manner, or cause of the event or situation described by the clause (see below). That is, they restrict the class of events/ situations described by the clause to a subset. If required the category ADJ can be split up into semantic sub-categories, that are annotated in layer semantic roles (time, location, etc.). (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.3)
has super-classes
syntactic rolec

syntactic argumentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SyntacticArgument

Current version:
added to account for TIGER edge labels with syntactic function
An inherent (morpho)syntactic constituent subcategorized for by a predicate.<br/> 'Arguments are those terms which are required by some predicate in order to form a complete nuclear predication. They are essential to the integrity of the SoA designated by the predicate frame. If we leave them out, the property/relation designated by the predicate is not fulfilled or satisfied.' (Dik, 1997:86f)<br/> An argument can be a controller in an agreement relation. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticArgument)<br/> The category ARG is assigned to those syntactic constituents that appear as obligatory complements to the main verb. This means that they cannot be left out without a change in grammaticality or a significant change in meaning. (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.3)
has super-classes
syntactic rolec
has sub-classes
syntactic objectc, syntactic subjectc

syntactic complementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SyntacticComplement

Current version:
according to the PennTreebank definition (Bies et al. 1995), arguments are complements
The complement is attached inside the VP, NP, ADJP, or PP. Verbs: The term “complement” as it is used here refers to: 1. internal arguments such as NP objects, S and SBAR with no adverbial dash tags (including some if-clauses, as in I wonder if the Cubs are winning), and quoted constituents (including SINV and FRAG) 2. the passive logical-subject by-phrase 3. VP 4. constituents tagged -BNF, -CLR, -DTV, -PRD, and -PUT (S (NP-SBJ-1 the guide) (VP was (VP given (NP *-1) (PP-DTV to (NP Arthur)) (PP by (NP-LGS Ford))))) Nouns: Since it is difficult to consistently annotate an argument/adjunct distinction, all PP modifiers of nouns are Chomsky-adjoined to the NP: (NP (NP a teacher) (PP of (NP chemistry))) Adjectives: Except in comparatives, any modifier following an adjective is bracketed as a complement. (ADJP eager/likely/ready (S to believe anything)) Prepositions: The NP or S complement of a preposition is placed inside the PP. (Bies et al. 1995)
has super-classes
syntactic rolec

syntactic functionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SyntacticFunction

has super-classes
has syntactic functionop
has sub-classes
adjectivalc, adverbialc, nominalc, verbalc
is in range of
has syntactic functionop

syntactic objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SyntacticObject

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticObject
In linguistics, the object of a transitive verb is one of its core arguments, which generally represents the target of the verb's action or the undergoer of its effects. In more general terms, an object is a patient. Verbs with no object (as in the sentence "I run") are called intransitive verbs. Those which do take objects are called transitive verbs. Transitive verbs which take only one object are known as monotransitive. Ditransitive verbs have two objects, a patient and a recipient. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_%28grammar%29). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticObject) An object, traditionally defined, is either a direct object or an indirect object. An object, in some usages, is any grammatical relation other than subject (Crystal 1985: 211; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155-156; Mish et al. 1990: 814, Comrie 1989: 66). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/object)
has super-classes
syntactic argumentc
has sub-classes
direct objectc, indirect objectc, prepositional objectc

syntactic relationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SyntacticRelation

Current version:
TODO: check TDS and GOLD
has super-classes
relationc
(has childop exactly 1) and (has parentop exactly 1)
has sub-classes
dependency relationc, dominance relationc, has conjunctc

syntactic rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#SyntacticRole

Current version:
2010/04/08 merged with EAGLES NPFunction "NPFunction is an additional optional attribute for adjectives. It subsumes the values HeadFunction, Postmodifying and Premodifying." (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1a 20.11.06)
has super-classes
has syntactic roleop
has sub-classes
conjunctc, headc, modifierc, predicatec, syntactic adjunctc, syntactic argumentc, syntactic complementc
is in range of
has syntactic roleop

syntactic subjectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#SyntacticSubject

Current version:
http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticSubject
The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. Providing an adequate definition of the notion of a subject is notoriously difficult, and depends on a range of grammatical properties that may vary from language to language. For this reason, many current grammatical theories avoid using the term, except for purely descriptive purposes, or define it in terms of occupying a particular position in the clause. The term subject refers to the grammatical function an expression may have in relation to other expressions in a sentence, and it should be distinguished from parts of speech, which classify expressions independently of their relations to other constituents of a sentence. The subject of a verb is the argument which generally refers to the origin of the action or the undergoer of the state shown by the verb. However, this definition depends on the particular language under consideration. In languages where a passive voice exists, the subject of a passive verb may be the target or result of the action. This is a semantic definition. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subject_(grammar)). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticSubject)
has super-classes
syntactic argumentc
has sub-classes
intransitive subjectc, transitive subjectc

taboo registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TabooRegister

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1996
Register that expresses a situation that people avoid because it is extremely offensive or embarrassing. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1996)
has super-classes
register featurec

target rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TargetRole

Current version:
added as counterpart of SourceRole, see there
The target role instantiates the destination of an event or entity.
has super-classes
direction rolec

technical registerc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TechnicalRegister

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1997
The register appropriate to scientific texts or special languages. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1997)
has super-classes
register featurec

temporalis casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TemporalisCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#TemporalisCase
The so-called Temporalis Case is formed in Hungarian with -kor. Expresses a point of time or a period. (http://member.melbpc.org.au/~tmajlath/form-suffix.html)
has super-classes
case featurec

tense featurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia-top.owl#TenseFeature

Current version:
Subclassification in absolute, relaive and absolute-relative adopted from TDS. Habitual is modelled here as Aspect, in accordance with GOLD, replaced here by NotTemporallyAnchored. Skipped TDS non-presentTense (= complement of Present), http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonFuture, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonPast, redefined Future and Past as superconcepts to cover different future and past tenses
has super-classes
has tenseop
has sub-classes
absolute tensec, absolute-relative tensec, not temporally anchoredc, relative tensec
is in range of
has tenseop

tense marking auxiliaryc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TenseMarkingAuxiliary

Current version:
adopted from Sajjad (2007) for Urdu, cf. http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#TenseAuxiliary
An auxiliary that marks exclusively tense, e.g., in Urdu: Auxiliaries: Based on the syntactic nature of Urdu, auxiliaries are divided into two categories. Aspectual auxiliaries always occur after main verb of the sentence. Tense auxiliaries are used to show the time of the action. They occurred at the end of the verb phrase. (Sajjad 2007). In Urdu, the auxiliary gā indicates future tense when it follows a verb in the subjunctive form. (http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#GaAuxiliary)
has super-classes
strict auxiliary verbc

tense marking particlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TenseMarkingParticle

Current version:
adopted from Dzongkha tagset (Chungku et al. 2010, http://purl.org/olia/dzongkha.owl#TenseMarker)
Dzongkha has also a tense marker, which is not complicated like in other languages. It has got only six tense markers and can be used in a very simple and effective way. They are: ('Ni'+'Wong') for future, ('D'o'+'D'ä') for present and ('Ci'+'Yi') for past tense. ང་ ནངས་པ་ འ ་ ། Nga naba jo-ni[past tense] I tomorrow go-will-[past] 'I am going tomorrow' (http://panl10n.net/english/Outputs%20Phase%202/CCs/Bhutan/Papers/2007/0701/PartOfSpeech.pdf)
has super-classes
verbal particlec
has sub-classes
future particlec

terminative aspectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TerminativeAspect

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Terminative
Denotes the termination of an event (Bhat 1999: 92). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Terminative)
has super-classes
aspect featurec

terminative casec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TerminativeCase

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeCase, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1401
Case that indicates to what or where something ends. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1401) TerminativeCase expresses the notion of something into but not further than (ie, not through) the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into but not through'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeCase)
has super-classes
case featurec

textc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Text

Current version:
http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847
Series of sentences expressed in a natural language. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847)
has super-classes
orthographic entityc

theme rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ThemeRole

Current version:
TODO: check definition, AFAIK Theme also applies to the third (non-ACTOR, non-UNDERGOER) argument (Ch. Chiarcos)
Theme is a general term covering the notions of patient that means an entity affected by the action, of result that means an entity effected by the action, i.e. which emerges out of the action, or of theme that means an entity effected by the action, i.e. which emerges out of the action. (Dipper et al. 2007: §5.3.3)
has super-classes
semantic rolec

thirdc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#Third

Current version:
EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Third
Third person is deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee. For example in English "he", "she", "they" or the third person singular verb suffix -s, e.g. in "He sometimes flies." (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsThirdPersonDeixis.htm 20.11.06)
has super-classes
person featurec
has sub-classes
third obviativec, third proximativec

third obviativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ThirdObviative

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdObviative, modelled here as a subconcept of Third
Obviative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way further removed from the speaker than other non-particpants. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdObviative)
has super-classes
thirdc

third person pronounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ThirdPersonPronoun

Current version:
EAGLES Pronoun with Person="Third". As only personal and reflexive pronouns show person differentiation, ThirdPersonPronoun is modelled as a subclass of PersReflConcept here.
Third person reference is a deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsThirdPersonDeixis.htm 19.09.06)
has super-classes
pers refl pronounc
has sub-classes
expletive pronounc

third proximativec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#ThirdProximative

Current version:
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdProximative, modelled here under Third
Proximative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-particpants. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdProximative)
has super-classes
thirdc

time nounc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl#TimeNoun

Current version:
deprecated, as merely a shorthand for Noun and hasSemanticRole some TimeRole
is defined by
http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl